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Talking it Through: Responses to Sorcery and Witchcraft Beliefs and Practices in Melanesia

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ISBN: 9781925021561 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_569113 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-14 11:01:28
License: ANU Press

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Sorcery and witchcraft practices and beliefs are pervasive across Melanesia. They are in part created by, and give rise to, a wide variety of poor social and developmental outcomes. These include uneven economic development, low public health, lack of social cohesion, crime, fear and insecurity. A further very visible problem is the attacks on men and women who are accused of being practitioners of witchcraft or sorcery, which can lead to serious bodily harm, banishment and sometimes death. Today, many communities, individuals, church organisations and policymakers in Melanesia and internationally are exploring ways to overcome the negative social outcomes associated with witchcraft and sorcery practices and beliefs. This book brings together a collection of chapters written by a diverse range of authors, both Melanesian and non-Melanesian, providing crucial insights both into how these practices and beliefs are playing out in contemporary Melanesia, and also the types of interventions that are being trialled or debated to address the problems associated with them.

Methodological Quality of Interventions in Psychology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452491 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-249-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Evaluations of intervention programs seek to present high-quality design, measures and data to assess their merit and worth. While evaluations differ in their purpose, theoretical framework and methodology, their collective aim is to obtain relevant and meaningful information to inform practice, research, and policy. As such, evaluation findings serve to build a body of knowledge on effective approaches to promote designated psychological outcomes, critical to an individual's overall health and well-being. However, as examined in this e-book, methodological weaknesses directly limit the potential of evaluations of intervention programs. As discussed by Chacón-Moscoso and Sanduvete-Chaves, methodological weaknesses can be attributed to how to define and measure methodological quality and the contextual dependency of instruments designed to measure this quality.In response, this e-book provides a collection of studies on methodological approaches to promote the quality of psychological interventions. Specifically, 10 original works published in the Research Topic Methodological Quality of Interventions in Psychology are included. The papers are organized into two chapters. Concretely, Chapter 1 includes studies pertaining to methodological approaches to enhance the quality of psychological intervention, being context independent solutions. Furthermore, Chapter 2 presents original work in different areas (health, education, sport and social welfare) where methodological quality has been better assessed. Collectively, the papers in this e-book serve to expand the awareness of practitioners and researchers interested in psychological interventions of the critical role of methodological quality in this work. This research was funded by the projects 1150096 (Chilean National Fund of Scientific and Technological Development, FONDECYT); and PSI2015-71947-REDT (Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

The Sociocultural Context of Psychosocial Interventions

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456482 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-648-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Across diverse academic fields, scholars and practitioners are engaged in developing interventions to promote outcomes like health and quality of life. Indeed, such is the apparent efficacy of such interventions, that there are many policy-led initiatives to implement these at national and international scales. However, few scholars or practitioners have thought in any systematic and critical way about the importance of contextualizing these interventions, i.e., considering how the impact of such interventions may be affected and mediated by specific sociocultural factors (from gender, to ethnicity and socio-economics).The aim of the Research Topic “The Sociocultural Context of Psychosocial Interventions” was to address this lacuna. As such, we tried to help bringing a more ‘contextual’ mindset to the implementation of health and wellbeing interventions. This may help to shift the way such interventions are designed and implemented, both at a granular local level (i.e., influencing individual practitioners) and at a large-scale macro level (e.g., influencing policy makers).Themes within this Research Topic have concerned both macro-sociocultural as well as meso-and micro-layers, and the peculiarities of implementing real world research based on these levels. There has been room for physical and mental health, for family relationships, for educational contexts and even for the effects of crime. Some works have included interesting methodological discussions on the integration of different ecological layers or the modal distribution of our interests.For us it has been very important to work giving a greater diffusion to these issues since, considering psychosocial interventions in the context in which they occur, goes beyond an epistemological or methodological discussion. Rather, these considerations seriously affect the ability of practitioners to really reach the people who need their interventions, listening to their needs and respecting their preferences. For the editors of this book, then, the contextualization of interventions means considering the people who receive them as full citizens immersed in complex societies where factors such as social justice and health or well-being do not float apart in space but affect each other dialectically. We therefore think that the duty of both academics and practitioners is not to forget that it is as important to evaluate the direct effect of our interventions as the influence we have in the society as a whole when we carry them out.We hope you enjoy reading these works and that their dissemination stimulates new lines of research committed to both good practice and social transformation.

Chapter 6 Coordinating international interventions in complex settings (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780367236885 Year: Pages: 17 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 11:21:04
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This paper assesses coordination as a salient capability of international&#xD;interventions in complex settings characterised by weak&#xD;states, the dominance of political elites whose interest in reforms&#xD;is questionable and multiple local and international stakeholders.&#xD;It focuses on the challenge of integrating a range of national and&#xD;international actors and multiple policy domains, assessing this&#xD;operational capability in terms of a Whole-of-Society approach.&#xD;Using the example of the EU’s intervention in Kosovo through&#xD;the mechanisms of the EULEX mission, and the EU-facilitated&#xD;Dialogue between Serbia and Kosovo, the paper argues that the&#xD;EU’s impact in Kosovo was weakened by its limited ability to&#xD;include and engage a broad range of local stakeholders. While a&#xD;Whole-of-Society approach could address this weakness, the paper&#xD;also argues that a better understanding of the context-specific&#xD;opportunities and limitations placed on international organisations&#xD;like the EU is needed.

Field Trials of Health Interventions, 3rd edition

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198732860 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.1093/med/9780198732860.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 063410
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-30 11:01:12
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Before new interventions can be used in disease control programmes, it is essential that they are carefully evaluated in “field trials”, which may be complex and expensive undertakings. Descriptions of the detailed procedures and methods used in trials that have been conducted in the past have generally not been published. As a consequence, those planning such trials have few guidelines available and little access to previously accumulated knowledge. In this book the practical issues of trial design and conduct are discussed fully and in sufficient detail for the text to be used as a “toolbox” by field investigators. The toolbox has now been extensively tested through use of the first two editions and this third edition is a comprehensive revision, incorporating the many developments that have taken place with respect to trials since 1996 and involving more than 30 contributors. Most of the chapters have been extensively revised and 7 new chapters have been added.

Understanding the Human Factor of the Energy Transition: Mechanisms Underlying Energy-Relevant Decisions and Behaviors

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198801 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-880-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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An increasing number of countries are shifting toward sustainable energy economies, emphasizing the use of renewable energy sources, increases in energy efficiency and the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The success of such an energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on major changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Consequently, the behavioral sciences can make important contributions to the energy transition by increasing our understanding of the multiple factors and mechanisms that underlie individual as well as group-based decisions and behaviors in the energy domain and by creating a basis for systematic interventions that reduce energy usage. Many different types of relevant behaviors and decisions need to be considered in this context, including decisions to invest in energy-efficient household equipment, adjustments of energy-critical habits related to heating, eating, or mode of transportation, and participation in the political discourse related to questions of energy. An integration of the expertise of the different disciplines of the behavioral sciences is thus needed to comprehensively investigate the impact of the different drivers and barriers that may determine energy-related decisions and behaviors, including economic factors such as price level, social factors such as norms, communication patterns and social learning processes, and individual factors such as values, attitudes, beliefs, heuristics, affective biases and emotions. The potential impact of these factors on the success of the energy transition is considerable: for example, a recent projection of the energy demand in Switzerland until 2050 has estimated the reduction potential related to psychological and sociological factors between 0% and 30%, depending on which behavioral changes will be implemented in society. Increased research efforts from the behavioral sciences are required to ensure that the full reduction potential can be achieved. This Research Topic brings together contributions from different disciplines such as psychology, affective science, behavioral economics, economics, sociology, consumer behavior, business science, sociology, and political science, that improve our understanding of the many factors underlying decision-making and behavior in the energy domain, and contribute to the development of targeted interventions that aim at reducing energy demand based on these factors.

Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038429258 9783038429265 Year: Pages: X, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:50:08
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature related to salt reduction. Manuscripts should focus on population interventions for reducing dietary sodium and we are particularly interested in innovative approaches to changing the food environment and/or consumer behaviour. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions for reducing dietary sodium are also welcome, as are studies from low or lower middle income countries.Potential topics may include, but are not limited to: Development/evaluation of regional or national strategies to reduce population salt intake Methodological issues related to measuring salt consumption patterns Use of policy or legislative approaches to reduce salt consumption Design and/or assessment of impact of behavioural change programs Modelling of the impact of interventions on salt intake and health outcomes.

Censuses and mapping (Book chapter)

Book title: Field Trials of Health Interventions, 3rd edition

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198732860 Year: Pages: 480 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 063410
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:50

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Before new interventions can be used in disease control programmes, it is essential that they are carefully evaluated in “field trials”, which may be complex and expensive undertakings. Descriptions of the detailed procedures and methods used in trials that have been conducted in the past have generally not been published. As a consequence, those planning such trials have few guidelines available and little access to previously accumulated knowledge. In this book the practical issues of trial design and conduct are discussed fully and in sufficient detail for the text to be used as a “toolbox” by field investigators. The toolbox has now been extensively tested through use of the first two editions and this third edition is a comprehensive revision, incorporating the many developments that have taken place with respect to trials since 1996 and involving more than 30 contributors. Most of the chapters have been extensively revised and 7 new chapters have been added.

Dedication (Book chapter)

Book title: Field Trials of Health Interventions, 3rd edition

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198732860 Year: Pages: 480 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 063410
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:50

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Abstract

Before new interventions can be used in disease control programmes, it is essential that they are carefully evaluated in “field trials”, which may be complex and expensive undertakings. Descriptions of the detailed procedures and methods used in trials that have been conducted in the past have generally not been published. As a consequence, those planning such trials have few guidelines available and little access to previously accumulated knowledge. In this book the practical issues of trial design and conduct are discussed fully and in sufficient detail for the text to be used as a “toolbox” by field investigators. The toolbox has now been extensively tested through use of the first two editions and this third edition is a comprehensive revision, incorporating the many developments that have taken place with respect to trials since 1996 and involving more than 30 contributors. Most of the chapters have been extensively revised and 7 new chapters have been added.

Intervention costing and economic analysis (Book chapter)

Book title: Field Trials of Health Interventions, 3rd edition

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198732860 Year: Pages: 480 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 063410
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:50

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Abstract

Before new interventions can be used in disease control programmes, it is essential that they are carefully evaluated in “field trials”, which may be complex and expensive undertakings. Descriptions of the detailed procedures and methods used in trials that have been conducted in the past have generally not been published. As a consequence, those planning such trials have few guidelines available and little access to previously accumulated knowledge. In this book the practical issues of trial design and conduct are discussed fully and in sufficient detail for the text to be used as a “toolbox” by field investigators. The toolbox has now been extensively tested through use of the first two editions and this third edition is a comprehensive revision, incorporating the many developments that have taken place with respect to trials since 1996 and involving more than 30 contributors. Most of the chapters have been extensively revised and 7 new chapters have been added.

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