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Solar Radiation, Modelling and Remote Sensing

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ISBN: 9783039210046 / 9783039210053 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-005-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Accurate solar radiation knowledge and its characterization on the Earth’s surface are of high interest in many aspects of environmental and engineering sciences. Modeling of solar irradiance from satellite imagery has become the most widely used method for retrieving solar irradiance information under total sky conditions, particularly in the solar energy community. Solar radiation modeling, forecasting, and characterization continue to be broad areas of study, research, and development in the scientific community. This Special Issue contains a small sample of the current activities in this field. Both the environmental and climatology community, as the solar energy world, share a great interest in improving modeling tools and capabilities for obtaining more reliable and accurate knowledge of solar irradiance components worldwide. The work presented in this Special Issue also remarks on the significant role that remote sensing technologies play in retrieving and forecasting solar radiation information.

Keywords

Himawari-8/Advanced Meteorological Imager (Himawari-8/AHI) --- Geostationary Korea Multi-Purse Satellite/Advanced Meteorological Imager (GK-2A/AMI) --- broadband albedo at the top of the atmosphere (TOA albedo) --- reflected shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (RSR) --- Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) --- surface solar radiation --- remote sensing --- validation --- India --- solar radiation trends --- Solis scheme --- clear sky --- radiation model --- radiative transfer --- high turbidity --- water vapor --- solar radiation --- understory light condition --- forest canopy --- subcanopy light regime --- PAR --- shortwave radiation --- light attenuation --- remote sensing --- solar irradiance --- nowcasting --- AMESIS --- MSG --- SEVIRI --- radiance --- brightness temperature --- motion vector field --- photosynthetically active radiation --- global horizontal irradiance --- clustering analysis --- Kato bands --- solar irradiance --- MSG --- SEVIRI --- HRV --- AMESIS --- solar radiation --- global horizontal irradiance --- satellite-derived dataset --- validation --- solar energy --- aerosol impact --- earth observation --- clear sky index --- solar irradiance --- downward shortwave radiation --- global horizontal irradiance --- solar variability --- cloud categories --- GOES satellites --- evapotranspiration --- insolation --- surface energy balance --- data fusion --- water resource management --- California Delta --- solar radiation --- radiative transfer --- solar energy systems --- solar radiation forecasting

Abiotic Stress Effects on Performance of Horticultural Crops

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217502 / 9783039217519 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-751-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-05 10:43:33
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Horticultural crop yield and quality depend on genotype, environmental conditions, and production management. In particular, adverse environmental conditions may greatly affect crop performance, reducing crop yield by 50%–70%. Abiotic stresses such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and ultraviolet radiation affect multiple physiological and biochemical mechanisms in plants as they attempt to cope with the stress conditions. However, different crop species can have different sensitivities or tolerances to specific abiotic stresses. Tolerant plants may activate different strategies to adapt to or avoid the negative effect of abiotic stresses. At the physiological level, photosynthetic activity and light-use efficiency of plants may be modulated to enhance tolerance against the stress. At the biochemical level, several antioxidant systems may be activated, and many enzymes may produce stress-related metabolites to help avoid cellular damage, including compounds such as proline, glycine betaine, and amino acids. Within each crop species there is a wide variability of tolerance to abiotic stresses, and some wild relatives may carry useful traits for enhancing the tolerance to abiotic stresses in their progeny through either traditional or biotechnological breeding. The research papers and reviews presented in this book provide an update of the scientific knowledge of crop interactions with abiotic stresses.

Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977049 9783038977056 Year: Pages: 454 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-705-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Ocean optics is a branch of oceanography which is firmly embedded in studies of a great variety of ocean science and engineering questions. The interactive nature between radiative transfer of light and various dissolved and particulate constituents of seawater is at the core of ocean optics science and applications. The transfer of radiant solar energy has vital implications to life and climate on Earth, and the large variety of subjects of ocean optics ranges from the subtle problems of physical optics to optical remote sensing towards a better understanding of ocean biology, biogeochemistry and ecosystems and their roles in the Earth's system processes. The intention of this book is to present a collection of papers that generally share a common denominator of frontier topics in ocean optics which are unique, uncommon or outstanding in the literature, and to provide a balanced view of the extraordinary breadth of research in this field. Topics as diverse as measurements and modeling of radiative transfer, light fields, light scattering and polarization, ocean color, benthic optical properties, and the use of optics for characterizing seawater constituents are addressed in this book. The book is expected to be of interest and useful to a broad audience of professional ocean scientists, engineers and advanced students with an interest in ocean optics and applications of optical methods in oceanography.

Keywords

forward modeling --- suspended matter --- marine particles --- fractal structure --- organic carbon --- chlorophyll-a --- oceanic light field --- irradiance quartet --- apparent optical properties --- inelastic processes --- Gershun equation --- ocean euphotic zone --- phytoplankton pigments --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- MERIS --- global oceans --- light scattering --- light scattering by pure water --- light scattering by pure seawater --- anomalous properties of water --- remote-sensing reflectance --- bathymetry --- hyperspectral --- bottom mapping --- radiative transfer --- apparent optical properties --- 3D Monte Carlo numerical simulations --- downward irradiance --- upward radiance --- sea ice heterogeneity --- vertical attenuation coefficient --- melt ponds --- remote sensing --- coral reef --- sensor noise --- retrieval uncertainty --- particle dynamics --- optical properties --- suspended sediment --- phytoplankton --- PFT --- ocean colour --- satellite radiometry --- radiative transfer --- optical modelling --- vector radiative transfer --- polarization --- coupled systems --- atmosphere --- ocean --- forward modeling --- inverse problems --- marine optics --- inherent optical properties --- volume scattering function --- degree of linear polarization --- marine particles --- light scattering measurements --- LISST-VSF instrument --- ocean optics --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- radiative transfer approximation --- volume scattering function --- NASA PACE mission --- polarization --- ocean optics --- upwelling radiance distribution --- remote sensing --- remote sensing --- hyperspectral --- shallow water --- coral --- derivative --- radiative transfer --- canopy --- ocean color database --- oceanic carbon --- chromophoric dissolved organic matter --- dissolved organic carbon --- CDOM spectral slope --- ocean color remote sensing --- algorithm development --- ocean color algorithm validation --- ocean optics --- CDOM climatology --- CDOM and ENSO --- machine learning --- ocean optics --- backscattering ratio --- phytoplankton --- coated-sphere model --- bulk refractive index --- seawater component --- natural organic matter --- DOM --- FDOM --- CDOM --- Gelbstoff --- EEMS --- PARAFAC --- marine sensors --- Kallemeter --- FerryBox --- Trondheimsfjord --- Norway --- ocean optics --- light scattering --- Mueller matrix --- volume and surface integral methods

Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038979623 / 9783038979630 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-963-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book collects the articles published in the Special Issue “Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications”. It shows the advances in polymeric materials, which have tremendous applications in agricultural films, food packaging, dental restoration, antimicrobial systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are presented as films, coatings, particles, fibers, hydrogels, or networks. The potential to modify and modulate their surfaces or their content by different techniques, such as click chemistry, ozonation, breath figures, wrinkle formation, or electrospray, are also explained, taking into account the relationship between the structure and properties in the final application. Moreover, new trends in the development of such materials are presented, using more environmental friendly and safe methods, which, at the same time, have a high impact on our society.

Keywords

corn stalk fiber --- friction composite --- friction and wear --- worn surface morphology --- antifouling coatings --- biofouling --- natural biofilms --- single-stranded conformation polymorphism --- polydimethylsiloxane --- multidimensional scale analysis --- antimicrobial coatings --- porous surfaces --- breath figures --- antimicrobial polymer --- coatings --- hydrogel --- protein-repellent polymer --- surface-attached polymer network --- polymer cross-linking --- alginate modification --- calcium chloride --- microparticles --- spray drying --- prolonged drug release --- gradient wrinkles --- UV/ozone --- irradiance --- polymeric composites --- bonding agents --- antibacterial --- oral biofilms --- periodontal pathogens --- caries inhibition --- recycling --- polypropylene --- biodegradable polymers --- degradation --- inmiscibility --- hemicelluloses --- chitosan --- composite films --- oxygen barrier property --- food packaging --- nanosecond laser surface modification --- ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) --- surface wettability --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- poly(x-chlorostyrene) --- honeycomb --- breath figures --- conformational entropy --- spinal anatomy --- intervertebral disc --- degenerative disc disease --- herniated disc --- spinal fusion --- total disc replacement --- tissue engineering --- Electrically conductive polymers --- Electroactive biomaterials --- Electrical stimulation --- Smart composites --- Bioelectric effect --- Drug delivery --- Artificial muscle --- bio-based --- fossil --- hybrids --- blends --- packaging --- bio-based polymers --- antimicrobial --- biodegradable --- sustainable --- eco-friendly --- graphene oxide --- chitosan --- composites --- scaffolds --- tissue engineering --- surface modification/functionalization --- surface segregation --- micro- and nanopatterned films --- blends and (nano)composites --- coatings --- surface wettability --- stimuli-responsive materials/smart surfaces --- bioapplications

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972761 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-277-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

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eng (6)


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2019 (6)