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Stem cells and progenitor cells in ischemic stroke - fashion or future?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197248 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-724-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Stroke remains one of the most devastating diseases in industrialized countries. Recanalization of the occluded arterial vessel using thrombolysis is the only causal therapy available. However, thrombolysis is limited due to severe side effects and a limited time window. As such, only a minority of patients receives this kind of therapy, showing a need for new and innovative treatment strategies. Although neuroprotective drugs have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of experimental stroke models, they ultimately failed in clinical trials. Consequently, recent scientific focus has been put on modulation of post-ischemic neuroregeneration, either via stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis or via application of exogenous stem cells or progenitor cells. Neurogenesis persists within the adult brain of both rodents and primates. As such, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are found within distinct niches like the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Cerebral ischemia stimulates these astrocyte-like progenitor cells, upon which NPCs proliferate and migrate towards the site of lesion. There, NPCs partly differentiate into mature neurons, without significantly being integrated into the residing neural network. Rather, the majority of new-born cells dies within the first weeks post-stroke, leaving post-ischemic neurogenesis a phenomenon of unknown biological significance. Since NPCs do not replace lost brain tissue, beneficial effects observed in some studies after either stimulated or protected neurogenesis are generally contributed to indirect effects of these new-born cells. The precise identification of appropriated cellular mediators, however, is still elusive. How do these mediators work? Are they soluble factors or maybe even vesicular structures emanating from NPCs? What are the cues that guide NPCs towards the ischemic lesion site? How can post-ischemic neurogenesis be stimulated? How can the poor survival of NPCs be increased? In order to support post-ischemic neurogenesis, a variety of research groups have focused on application of exogenous stem/progenitor cells from various tissue sources. Among these, cultivated NPCs from the SVZ and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow are frequently administered after induction of stroke. Although neuroprotection after delivery of stem/progenitor cells has been shown in various experimental stroke models, transplanted cells are usually not integrated in the neural network. Again, the vast amount of grafted cells dies or does not reach its target despite profound neuroprotection, also suggesting indirect paracrine effects as the cause of neuroprotection. Yet, the factors being responsible for these observations are under debate and still have to be addressed. Is there any “optimal” cell type for transplantation? How can the resistance of grafted cells against a non-favorable extracellular milieu be increased? What are the molecules that are vital for interaction between grafted cells and endogenous NPCs? The present research topic seeks to answer - at least in part - some of the aforementioned questions. Although the research topic predominantly focuses on experimental studies (and reviews alike), a current outlook towards clinical relevance is given as well.

BK Channels: Integrators of Cellular Signals in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452910 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-291-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Maxi calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are an amazing category of ion channels which are found in cellular plasma membranes as well as in membranes of intracellular organelles. The function of these channels is to repolarize any excited membrane by passing a potassium outward current, in response to depolarization and/or increase in local calcium levels. Thus, voltage and calcium ions are involved in gating the channel under physiological conditions. This dual activation makes them perfect sensors for many cellular events that require integration between intracellular calcium levels and electrical signals. A plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions, such as membrane hyperpolarization, modulation of synaptic transmission, hormone secretion or mental deficiencies, vaso-regulation, epilepsies, heart diseases, myotonic dystrophies, hypertension etc, in almost all cells and tissues were reported for these channels. BK channels are main targets for important ligands like alcohol and gaseous neurotransmitters, such as NO, CO or H2S, to name a few. In the last years, the molecular entities and mechanisms involved in modulation of BK channels have gained tremendous attention, as the key role of these channels in cellular processes became increasingly recognized. Indeed, accessory proteins such as slob, beta and gamma subunits, all serve to modulate the channel gating characteristics. Moreover, channel subunit expression and function is further tuned by phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation processes, redox mechanisms and the lipid microenvironment of the BK channel protein complex. This e-book contains structural and functional aspects of BK channels, channel modulation by a variety of agents and cellular components, as well as the channel’s relevance in health and disease.

Multiscale Modeling of Cardiac Electrophysiology: Adaptation to Atrial and Ventricular Rhythm Disorders and Pharmacological Treatment

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783731500452 Year: Volume: 20 Pages: IX, 181 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035360 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Multiscale modeling of cardiac electrophysiology helps to better understand the underlying mechanisms of atrial fibrillation, acute cardiac ischemia and pharmacological treatment. For this purpose, measurement data reflecting these conditions have to be integrated into models of cardiac electrophysiology. Several methods for this model adaptation are introduced in this thesis. The resulting effects are investigated in multiscale simulations ranging from the ion channel up to the body surface.

Compartment Syndrome

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ISBN: 9783030223311 9783030223304 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22331-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-01 11:36:08
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Compartment syndrome is a complex physiologic process with significant potential harm, and though an important clinical problem, the basic science and research surrounding this entity remains poorly understood. This unique open access book fills the gap in the knowledge of compartment syndrome, re-evaluating the current state of the art on this condition. The current clinical diagnostic criteria are presented, as well as the multiple dilemmas facing the surgeon. Pathophysiology, ischemic thresholds and pressure management techniques and limitations are discussed in detail. The main surgical management strategy, fasciotomy, is then described for both the upper and lower extremities, along with wound care. Compartment syndrome due to patient positioning, in children and polytrauma patients, and unusual presentations are likewise covered. Novel diagnosis and prevention strategies, as well as common misconceptions and legal ramifications stemming from compartment syndrome, round out the presentation.Unique and timely, Compartment Syndrome: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management will be indispensable for orthopedic and trauma surgeons confronted with this common yet challenging medical condition.

Redox and Nitrosative Signaling in Cardiovascular System: From Physiological Response to Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457267 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-726-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The role of ROS/RNS signaling in cardiovascular functions and diseases is increasingly emerging in the last decades. The involvement of ROS/RNS in the control of a large number of cardiovascular functions like the regulation of the vascular tone, the control of blood pressure or myocyte excitation-contraction coupling and force development has been broadly investigated and in part clarified. On the other hand, many efforts have been focused in clarifying the redox mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases like ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes-associated cardiovascular dysfunctions, atherosclerosis or hypertension, just to mention the major ones. However, in most cases the two levels of investigation remain separate and not interlaced, failing in the attempt to provide a unified vision of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases. The major aim of the Research Topic has been to collect original papers and review articles dealing with the issue from basic to translation research point of views. The topic includes contributions that highlight different interesting aspects of cardiovascular biology with an integrated approach useful for the development of new ideas and advancements in the field of redox signaling in the control of normal cardiovascular functions and their disruption in diseases.

Kidney Inflammation, Injury and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039285389 / 9783039285396 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-539-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still associated with high morbidity and mortality incidence rates, and also bears an elevated risk of subsequent chronic kidney disease. Although the kidney has a remarkable capacity for regeneration after injury and may recover completely depending on the type of renal lesions, the options for clinical intervention are restricted to fluid management and extracorporeal kidney support. The development of novel therapies to prevent AKI, to improve renal regeneration capacity after AKI, and to preserve renal function is urgently needed. The Special Issue covers research articles that investigated the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and injury during different renal pathologies, renal regeneration, diagnostics using new biomarkers, and the effects of different stimuli like medication or bacterial components on isolated renal cells or in vivo models. The Special Issue contains important reviews that consider the current knowledge of cell death and regeneration, inflammation, and the molecular mechanisms of kidney diseases. In addition, the potential of cell-based therapy approaches that use mesenchymal stromal/stem cells or their derivates is summarized. This edition is complemented by reviews that deal with the current data situation on other specific topics like diabetes and diabetic nephropathy or new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

kidney injury --- alport syndrome --- modifier gene --- nephrin --- podocin --- glomerular basement membrane --- slit diaphragm --- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- DSS-colitis --- glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) --- type IV collagen --- type I collagen --- type V collagen --- genotype --- IL-18 --- polymorphism --- renal cell carcinoma --- Taiwan --- mesenchymal stem cells --- acute and chronic kidney disease --- exosome --- natural products --- non-coding RNAs --- microRNAs --- long non-coding RNAs --- renal fibrosis --- biomarkers --- therapeutics targets --- rhabdomyolysis --- pigment nephropathy --- haem --- NLRP3 inflammasome --- acute kidney injury --- hypertension --- kidney --- molecular signaling --- hematuria --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- tubular injury --- AKI --- chronic kidney disease (CKD) --- mesenchymal stromal cells --- extracellular vesicles --- acute kidney injury --- modified-MSCs --- microRNA --- mesenchymal stem cell --- mesodermal stem cell --- renal ischemia-reperfusion --- inflammation --- kidney transplantation --- microRNA --- extracellular vesicles --- exosomes --- B-cell attracting chemokine --- CXCL13 --- kidney transplantation --- allograft rejection --- T cell-mediated rejection --- diabetic nephropathy --- lysophosphatidic acid --- lysophosphatidic acid receptor --- chronic kidney injury --- kidney proximal tubule --- acute kidney failure --- signal transduction --- transcription --- CREB Regulated Transcriptional Coactivators (CRTC) --- cAMP Regulatory Element Binding Protein (CREB) --- Salt Inducible Kinase (SIK) --- Class IIa Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) --- lncRNA --- long non-coding RNA --- miRNA --- kidney --- glomerulus --- podocyte --- acute kidney injury --- AKI --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetic kidney disease --- diabetic nephropathy --- inflammation --- signaling cascade --- ischemia-reperfusion --- acute kidney injury --- stem cell --- conditioned medium --- inflammation --- apoptosis --- necrosis --- regulated necrosis --- kidney injury --- tubular injury --- glomerular injury --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- omega-3 fatty acid --- inflammatory maker --- C-reactive protein --- interleukin-6 --- LPS-binding protein --- fibrosis --- pericyte --- myofibroblast --- endotoxemia-induced oliguric kidney injury --- arachidonic acid --- cyclooxygenase --- lipoxygenase --- cytochrome P450 --- kidney inflammation --- therapeutic target --- obese kidney fibrosis --- endotoxemia --- ROS --- cPLA2 and COX-2 --- IgA nephropathy --- KIT assay --- KIT-IgA score --- noninvasive --- diagnostics --- prediction --- diabetic kidney diseases --- xanthine oxidase --- glomerular damage --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- renal progenitors --- polyploidization --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetes mellitus --- GLP-1 receptor agonists --- SGLT2 inhibitors --- molecular mechanisms --- chemerin --- CmklR1 --- 2-kidney-1-clip --- 2k1c --- Thy1.1 nephritis --- renovascular hypertension --- renal inflammation --- renal injury --- renal fibrosis --- inflammation --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- Farnesiferol B --- Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) --- renal stem cells --- differentiation --- scattered tubular cells --- papilla --- niches --- renal tubular cells --- epithelial cells --- proximal tubule --- cytotoxicity --- injury --- inflammation --- empagliflozin --- dapagliflozin --- kidney --- n/a

Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation

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ISBN: 9783039212750 9783039212767 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-276-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In recent years, great attention has been paid to polyphenols due to their positive effects on health. One of the most widely-studied phenolic compounds is resveratrol. This molecule, which is naturally present in some foods, shows beneficial effects on various physiological and biochemical processes, thus representing a potential tool for the prevention or the treatment of diseases highly prevalent in our society. Several of these beneficial effects have been observed in human beings, but others only in pre-clinical studies so far, and therefore, it is mandatory to continue with the scientific research in this field. Indeed, new knowledge concerning these issues could enable the development of novel functional foods or nutraceuticals, incorporating resveratrol, suitable for preventing or treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, dislipemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, liver diseases, etc.

Curcumin in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039214495 9783039214501 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-450-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The plant-derived polyphenol curcumin has been used in promoting health and combating disease for thousands of years. Its therapeutic effects have been successfully utilized in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine in order to treat inflammatory diseases. Current results from modern biomolecular research reveal the modulatory effects of curcumin on a variety of signal transduction pathways associated with inflammation and cancer. In this context, curcumin’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and even anti-metastatic activities are discussed. On the cellular level, the reduced activity of several transcription factors (such as NFkB or AP-1) and the suppression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix degrading enzymes, metastasis related genes and even microRNAs are reported. On functional levels, these molecular effects translate into reduced proliferative, invasive, and metastatic capacity, as well as induced tumor cell apoptosis. All these effects have been observed not only in vitro but also in animal models. In combination with anti-neoplastic drugs like Taxol, kinase inhibitors, and radiation therapy, curcumin potentiates the drugs’ therapeutic power and can protect against undesired side effects. Natural plant-derived compounds like curcumin have one significant advantage: They do not usually cause side effects. This feature qualifies curcumin for primary prevention in healthy persons with a predisposition to cancer, arteriosclerosis, or chronic inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, curcumin is considered safe, although potential toxic effects stemming from high dosages, long-term intake, and pharmacological interactions with other compounds have yet to be assessed. This Special Issue examines in detail and updates current research on the molecular targets, protective effects, and modes of action of natural plant-derived compounds and their roles in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Keywords

brain ischemia --- curcumin --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neurodegeneration --- amyloid --- tau protein --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- apoptosis --- genes --- glioblastoma multiforme --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- curcumin --- chaperone-mediated autophagy --- Akt/mTOR signaling --- transmission electron microscopy --- Curcuma longa --- turmeric tuber --- Zingiberaceae --- TLC bioautography --- antimicrobial agents --- ImageJ --- TLC-MS --- hydrostatic counter-current chromatography --- centrifugal partition chromatography --- curcumin --- death receptor --- apoptosis --- curcumin --- anticancer --- structure activity relationship --- cellular pathway --- mechanism of action --- delivery system --- wound --- wound healing --- diet --- nutrition --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- curcumin --- amino-acids --- vitamins --- minerals --- curcumin --- oxidative metabolites --- inflamm-aging --- cancer --- metabolic reprogramming --- direct protein binding --- IL-17 --- STAT3 --- SHMT2 --- ageing --- anti-cancer --- autophagy --- microbiota --- senescence --- senolytics --- curcumin --- transthyretin --- amyloidosis --- protein aggregation --- protein misfolding --- drug discovery --- curcumin --- renal cell cancer --- tumor growth --- tumor proliferation --- cell cycling --- curcumin --- reflux esophagitis --- gastroprotection --- gastric ulcer --- Helicobacter pylori --- gastric cancer --- curcumin --- complementary medicine --- cancer treatment --- supportive care --- antioxidants --- anti-inflamation --- ulcerative colitis --- Crohn’s disease --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- curcumin --- inflammatory bowel disease --- curcumin --- silica --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- anti-tumor --- antioxidant activity --- n/a

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039219667 9783039219674 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-967-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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A screenshot of some the most rapidly evolving fields in Neonatology and Pediatrics with articles reviewing some metabolic dysregulations as well as non-oncologic diseases that may occur in infancy, childhood, youth. The illustrative material with original photographs and drawings highlighting some pathogenetic concepts are keystones of this book.

Seaweeds Secondary Metabolites: Successes in and/or Probable Therapeutic Applications

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ISBN: 9783039283002 9783039283019 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-301-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Seaweeds are recognized as highly nutritious, and their use in gastronomy is increasing. Their health benefits and their potential to prevent several diseases have also been established. In this Special Issue several health effects are discussed, with more emphasis on their antitumor activity and potential use to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The key bioactive metabolites, from which phlorotannins can be highlighted, are presented, as well as some important in vivo studies. Altogether, the chapters provide in-depth information about the biological activities of seaweed metabolites, contributing to elucidate the health effects of seaweed.

Keywords

Padina pavonica --- osteosarcoma --- apoptosis --- algae --- chemo-preventive agent --- phytol --- fucosterol --- fatty acid --- laurinterol --- Laurencia --- antitumoral --- breast cancer explants --- organotypic culture --- ex vivo --- phlorotannin --- eckmaxol --- high-speed counter-current chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- mass spectrometry --- isolation and purification --- Ecklonia maxima --- fucoidan --- age-related macular degeneration --- VEGF --- oxidative stress --- Saccharina latissima --- Fucus vesiculosus --- Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens --- Fucus serratus --- Laminaria digitata --- Symphyocladia latiuscula --- bromophenols --- mushroom tyrosinase --- B16F10 --- melanin --- red seaweed --- bioactives --- extraction --- biorefinery --- seaweed --- gut microbiota --- prebiotics --- dietary fibre --- complex polysaccharides --- polyphenols --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- carotenoids --- phytochemicals --- Padina pavonica --- marine algae --- osteoporosis --- bone metabolism --- bone health --- nutraceutical --- Bifurcaria bifurcata --- linear diterpenes --- extraction --- identification --- biological activities --- macroalgae --- high value applications --- phlorotannin --- amyloid-? aggregation --- insulin glycation --- dynamic simulation --- kidney --- ischemia-reperfusion injury --- Ecklonia cava --- phlorotannins --- Alzheimer’s disease --- seaweeds --- cholinesterases --- beta-secretase --- beta-amyloid aggregation --- neuroprotection --- K14HPV16 --- genotoxicity assay --- papillomavirus --- cancer --- seaweeds --- hyperpigmentation --- skin aging --- skincare --- photo-protection --- seaweeds --- secondary metabolites --- in vivo studies --- clinical trials --- health effects --- dieckol --- eckol --- fucoxanthin --- kahalalide F

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