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Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena

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ISBN: 9783039214655 / 9783039214662 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-466-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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During the past few decades, plasma science has witnessed a great growth in laboratory studies, in simulations, and in space. Plasma is the most common phase of ordinary matter in the universe. It is a state in which ionized matter (even as low as 1%) becomes highly electrically conductive. As such, long-range electric and magnetic fields dominate its behavior. Cosmic plasmas are mostly associated with stars, supernovae, pulsars and neutron stars, quasars and active galaxies at the vicinities of black holes (i.e., their jets and accretion disks). Cosmic plasma phenomena can be studied with different methods, such as laboratory experiments, astrophysical observations, and theoretical/computational approaches (i.e., MHD, particle-in-cell simulations, etc.). They exhibit a multitude of complex magnetohydrodynamic behaviors, acceleration, radiation, turbulence, and various instability phenomena. This Special Issue addresses the growing need of the plasma science principles in astrophysics and presents our current understanding of the physics of astrophysical plasmas, their electromagnetic behaviors and properties (e.g., shocks, waves, turbulence, instabilities, collimation, acceleration and radiation), both microscopically and macroscopically. This Special Issue provides a series of state-of-the-art reviews from international experts in the field of cosmic plasmas and electromagnetic phenomena using theoretical approaches, astrophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and state-of-the-art simulation studies.

Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics

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ISBN: 9783038975946 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-595-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Understanding of the role of turbulence in controlling transport processes is of paramount importance for the preservation and protection of aquatic ecosystems, the minimization of the deleterious consequences of anthropogenic activity, and the successful sustainable development of river and maritime areas. In this context, the present Special Issue collects 15 papers which provide a representation of the present understanding of turbulent processes and their effects in river and maritime environments. The presented collection of papers is not exhaustive, but it highlights the key priority areas and knowledge gaps in this field of research. The published papers present the state-of-the-art knowledge of complex environmental flows which are useful for researchers and practitioners. The paper contents are an overview of some recent topics of research and an exposure of the current and future challenges associated with these topics.

Keywords

breaking waves --- turbulence invariants --- laboratory experiments --- flow-through system --- tidal inlets --- residence time --- coastal lagoon --- MIKE 3 FM (HD & --- TR) --- MIKE 21 FM (HD) --- dense jet --- current flow --- velocity --- trajectory --- turbulence --- dissipation --- rivers --- meanders --- turbulence --- secondary motion --- prediction --- bedrock canyon --- ADCP --- eddy viscosity --- bed shear stress --- spatial analysis --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics models --- physical modelling --- plunging breaking waves --- vorticity --- turbulent jet --- wave–current interaction --- spectral dissipation --- bottom friction --- numerical model --- hydrodynamic model --- spectral model --- wave attenuation --- energy dissipation --- drag coefficient --- flexible vegetation --- Spartina maritima --- vegetation patch --- wake region --- submerged ratio --- SVF --- channel confluences --- junction angle --- flow deflection zone --- flow retardation zone --- flow separation zone --- numerical modelling --- PANORMUS --- jets --- waves --- turbulence --- mixing --- diffusion --- advection --- river mouth --- flow mixing --- nonlinear shallow water equations --- macrovortices --- sub-grid turbulence --- seabed friction --- flow resistance --- roughness --- gravel-bed rivers --- casting technique --- CFD --- Kelvin–Helmholtz --- billow --- lobe --- cleft --- gravity current --- surface waves --- inclined negatively buoyant jets --- regular waves --- dilution --- sea discharges --- rivers --- maritime areas --- turbulent processes

Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976400 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-641-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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This book contains the best and most up-to-date contributions in the field of late stage stellar evolution, as presented at the APNVII conference in Hong Kong in December 2017. A total of 60 scientists from 20 countries gathered to present, listen, interact and discuss the most current issues and problems in planetary nebulae and related objects research. The emphasis of this influential series of meetings, which was the seventh occasion over the last 20 years, has always been on the hypothesized and observed physical shaping mechanisms of the ejected nebulae that have such wonderful and intriguing forms. This special Galaxies conference issue of fully refereed contributions brings together a representative compilation of the meeting presentations in paper form. It captures the current “snap shot” status of this research field in some real sense. Such proceedings are well received and can be used as a reference material by both participants and all others working in the field for years to come.

Keywords

planetary systems --- planetary nebulae --- stars: binaries --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- stars: variables: general --- stars: abundances --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- stars: atmospheres --- stars: individual: WD 0044–121 --- stars: individual: WD 2134+25 --- stars: individual: WD 1751+106 --- planetary nebulae --- asymptotic giant branch stars --- mass loss --- infra-red --- planetary nebulae --- integral field spectroscopy --- stellar evolution --- binarity --- planetary nebulae --- stellar mass loss --- stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- circumstellar dust --- planetary nebulae --- mass-loss --- stellar evolution --- X-rays --- stellar evolution --- late stage stellar evolution --- binarity: transients: planetary nebulae --- planetary nebulae --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- late stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- stars: binaries --- central stars of planetary nebulae --- proto-planetary nebulae --- binaries: spectroscopic --- stars: atmospheres --- stars: abundances --- supernovae --- late stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- binarity --- stellar evolution --- AGB and post-AGB stars --- circumstellar matter --- winds and outflows --- mass-loss --- jets --- binaries: close --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- stars: winds, outflows --- ISM: jets and outflows --- binary stars --- post-AGB --- discs --- planetary nebula --- X-ray --- stellar evolution --- AGB stars --- post-AGB stars --- planetary nebulae --- planetary nebulae --- fullerenes --- planetary nebulae --- AGB and post-AGB stars --- binarity --- accretion disks --- jets --- mass-loss --- circumstellar matter --- (sub)millimeter interferometry --- ultraviolet radiation, X-rays --- infrared interferometry --- AGB stars --- stellar evolution --- observations --- aperture masking --- planetary nebulae --- binarity --- abundances --- stellar evolution --- post-AGB stars --- pre-PN hydrodynamic models --- planetary nebulae: Common Envelope --- planetary nebulae: individual (OH231+8+04.2) --- astrochemistry --- planetary nebulae --- UIE bands --- normal modes --- displacement vectors --- late-stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- multi-wavelength photometry --- radial velocity --- stellar evolution --- pulsation --- shock wave --- late stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- theory and observation --- planetary nebulae --- AGB and post-AGB --- interstellar medium --- radio continuum --- winds --- outflows --- dust --- extinction --- ISM: abundances --- planetary nebulae: individual (NGC 6781)

Surface Modification to Improve Properties of Materials

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ISBN: 9783038977964 9783038977971 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-797-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book contains selected contributions on surface modification to improve the properties of solid materials. The surface properties are tailored either by functionalization, etching, or deposition of a thin coating. Functionalization is achieved by a brief treatment with non-equilibrium gaseous plasma containing suitable radicals that interact chemically with the material surface and thus enable the formation of rather stable functional groups. Etching is performed in order to modify the surface morphology. The etching parameters are selected in such a way that a rich morphology of the surfaces is achieved spontaneously on the sub-micrometer scale, without using masks. The combination of adequate surface morphology and functionalization of materials leads to superior surface properties which are particularly beneficial for the desired response upon incubation with biological matter. Alternatively, the materials are coated with a suitable thin film that is useful in various applications from food to aerospace industries.

Keywords

sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) plasma --- tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma --- polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) --- surface modification --- functionalization and wettability --- optical emission spectroscopy (OES) --- electronegativity --- PVD nanocomposite coatings --- aluminum die casting --- tool life --- tribological performance --- plasma surface modification --- polymer polypropylene --- neutral oxygen atom density --- initial surface functionalization --- food packaging --- wettability --- tantalum --- hardness --- gradient nanostructured layer --- grain size --- residual stress --- dry wear behavior --- surface texture --- surface treatment --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- tribology --- biology --- materials characterization --- shot-peening --- image processing --- TIG welding --- aluminum 6061-T6 --- special surfaces --- wettability --- superhydrophobic --- cell cultures --- anti-bio adhesion --- self-cleaning fabrics --- polyethylene granules --- low-pressure MW air plasma --- optical emission spectroscopy --- XPS --- laser cobalt catalytic probe --- Alloy 718 --- surface hardness --- surface residual stress --- grain size --- fretting failure --- corrosion --- antimicrobial film --- nisin --- physical properties --- plasma treatment polyvinyl alcohol --- surface characterization --- microhole-textured tool --- CaF2 --- micro-EDM --- tribological properties --- egg shell --- stearic acid --- modification --- particle characterization --- epoxy composites --- dynamic mechanical analysis --- adhesion effectiveness --- Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) --- Teflon --- plasma treatment --- zeta potential --- surface energy --- contact angle measurement --- lectin --- bovine serum albumin --- adsorption --- cellulose thin film --- polystyrene --- gold --- surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy --- silver nanoparticles --- laser ablation in liquids --- laser synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles solution --- nanoparticle-impregnated paper --- antimicrobial activity --- fiber fines --- sheet forming --- vacuum filtration --- pulse power --- electrical stimulation --- electric field --- mushroom --- L. edodes --- Lyophyllum deeastes Sing --- surface modification --- porous silicon --- silicon surface --- carbonization --- oxidation --- aluminum --- alloy --- duralumin --- etching --- surface texture --- porous-like --- adhesive bonding --- superhydrophobic --- porous silicon --- visible light assisted organosilanization --- solid state NMR --- XPS --- ToF-SIMS --- atmospheric pressure plasma jets --- plasma polymerization --- superhydrophobicity --- wetting --- biomaterial --- polymer --- plasma --- functionalization --- surface properties --- thrombosis --- hemocompatibility --- endothealization --- vascular graft --- biocompatibility --- endothelial cells --- surface properties --- nanostructuring --- functionalization --- grafting

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (4)


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CC by-nc-nd (4)


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eng (4)


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2019 (4)