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Dal suono alla parola

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ISBN: 8884532019 8884532027 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_356377 Language: Italian
Publisher: Firenze University Press
Subject: Psychology --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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An up-to-date manual conceived to guide the reader through the most interesting and recent theories in the vast field of psycho-neuro-linguistics. After a review of the latest theories on the perception and production of language in adult and developmental age, the most recent studies on the relations between anatomy and cerebral functions are also discussed, opening up new perspectives on the study of language too.

Atypical Language Development in Romance Languages

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789027203212 9789027262493 Year: Pages: 263 DOI: 10.1075/z.223 Language: English
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-13 10:46:04
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This book presents a range of ongoing studies on atypical language development in Romance languages. Despite the steady increase in the number of studies on typical language development, there is still little research about atypical language development, especially in Romance languages. This book covers four main conditions causing atypical language development. Part I explores the linguistic and communicative characteristics of preterm children learning Romance languages. The focus of Part II centers on children with Specific Language Impairment. Hearing Loss in Part III is another relevant factor leading to atypical language development. The final part IV zeroes in on genetic syndromes coupled to cognitive impairment with special attention to language development. This book presents a much needed overview of the most recent findings in all relevant fields dealing with atypical language development in children speaking Romance languages.

Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194247 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-424-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Living at the beginning of the 21st century requires being numerate, because numerical abilities are not only essential for life prospects of individuals but also for economic interests of post-industrial knowledge societies. Thus, numerical development is at the core of both individual as well as societal interests. There is the notion that we are already born with a very basic ability to deal with small numerosities. Yet, this often called “number sense” seems to be very restricted, approximate, and driven by perceptual constraints. During our numerical development in formal (e.g., school) but also informal contexts (e.g., family, street) we acquire culturally developed abstract symbol systems to represent exact numerosities – in particular number words and Arabic digits – refining our numerical capabilities. In recent years, numerical development has gained increasing research interest documented in a growing number of behavioural, neuro-scientific, educational, cross-cultural, and neuropsychological studies addressing this issue. Additionally, our understanding of how numerical competencies develop has also benefitted considerably from the advent of different neuro-imaging techniques allowing for an evaluation of developmental changes in the human brain. In sum, we are now starting to put together a more and more coherent picture of how numerical competencies develop and how this development is associated with neural changes as well. In the end, this knowledge might also lead to a better understanding of the reasons for atypical numerical development which often has grieve consequences for those who suffer from developmental dyscalculia or mathematics learning disabilities. Therefore, this Research Topic deals with all aspects of numerical development: findings from behavioural performance to underlying neural substrates, from cross-sectional to longitudinal evaluations, from healthy to clinical populations. To this end, we included empirical contributions using different experimental methodologies, but also theoretical contributions, review articles, or opinion papers.

Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198092 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-809-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The present collection of articles brings together experimental work in the field of segmental and prosodic processing and representation in phonology and phonetics. Contributions focus on the exploration of human cognitive, articulatory, and perceptual abilities dealing with all types of phonetic and phonological entities. Main topics of investigation include: (1) sounds and sound-changing processes—systemic and functional aspects, (2) prosodic units such as syllables and metrical feet—systemic properties, processing, and phonetic consequences, and (3) tones as building blocks of the sentence melody—their relation to the level of linguistic expressions on the one hand, their phonetic realization (e.g., tonal height and contours) and perception on the other hand. In addition, topics (1) and (2) extend to the question how phonological representations are stored in the mental lexicon: specified minimally in terms of categorical phonological information or as variable phonetic imprint of the exemplars in the input. Diagonally to these thematic domains, the present Research Topic shows a strong focus on up-to-date experimental approaches, going far beyond traditional linguistic analysis, and making use of psycho- and neurolinguistic methodologies.

The naïve language expert: How infants discover units and regularities in speech

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193295 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-329-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The advent of behavior-independent measures of cognition and major progress in experimental designs have led to substantial advances in the investigation of infant language learning mechanisms. Research in the last two decades has shown that infants are very efficient users of perceptual and statistical cues in order to extract linguistic units and regular patterns from the speech input. This has lent support for learning-based accounts of language acquisition that challenge traditional nativist views. Still, there are many open questions with respect to when and how specific patterns can be learned and the relevance of different types of input cues. For example, first steps have been made to identify the neural mechanisms supporting on-line extraction of words and statistical regularities from speech. Here, the temporal cortex seems to be a major player. How this region works in concert with other brain areas in order to detect and store new linguistic units is a question of broad interest. In this Research Topic of Frontiers in Language Sciences, we bring together experimental and review papers across linguistic domains, ranging from phonology to syntax that address on-line language learning in infancy. Specifically, we focused on papers that explore one of the following or related questions: How and when do infants start to segment linguistic units from the speech input and discover the regularities according to which they are related to each other? What is the role of different linguistic cues during these acquisition stages and how do different kinds of information interact? How are these processes reflected in children’s behavior, how are they represented in the brain and how do they unfold in time? What are the characteristics of the acquired representations as they are established, consolidated and stored in long-term memory?By bringing together behavioral and neurophysiological evidence on language learning mechanisms, we aim to contribute to a more complete picture of the expeditious and highly efficient early stages of language acquisition and their neural implementation.

Language Development in the Digital Age

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453139 Year: Pages: 79 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-313-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The digital age is changing our children’s lives and childhood dramatically. New technologies transform the way people interact with each other, the way stories are shared and distributed, and the way reality is presented and perceived. Parents experience that toddlers can handle tablets and apps with a level of sophistication the children’s grandparents can only envy. The question of how the ecology of the child affects the acquisition of competencies and skills has been approached from different angles in different disciplines. In linguistics, psychology and neuroscience, the central question addressed concerns the specific role of exposure to language. Two influential types of theory have been proposed. On one view the capacity to learn language is hard-wired in the human brain: linguistic input is merely a trigger for language to develop. On an alternative view, language acquisition depends on the linguistic environment of the child, and specifically on language input provided through child-adult communication and interaction. The latter view further specifies that factors in situated interaction are crucial for language learning to take place. In the fields of information technology, artificial intelligence and robotics a current theme is to create robots that develop, as children do, and to establish how embodiment and interaction support language learning in these machines. In the field of human-machine interaction, research is investigating whether using a physical robot, rather than a virtual agent or a computer-based video, has a positive effect on language development. The Research Topic will address the following issues:- What are the methodological challenges faced by research on language acquisition in the digital age?- How should traditional theories and models of language acquisition be revised to account for the multimodal and multichannel nature of language learning in the digital age?- How should existing and future technologies be developed and transformed so as to be most beneficial for child language learning and cognition?- Can new technologies be tailored to support child growth, and most importantly, can they be designed in order to enhance specifically vulnerable children’s language learning environment and opportunities?- What kind of learning mechanisms are involved?- How can artificial intelligence and robotics technologies, as robot tutors, support language development? These questions and issues can only be addressed by means of an interdisciplinary approach that aims at developing new methods of data collection and analysis in cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. We welcome contributions addressing these questions from an interdisciplinary perspective both theoretically and empirically.

Embodied Cognition over the Lifespan and in Applied Settings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454921 Year: Pages: 293 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-492-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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While Embodied Cognition has now been accepted as mainstream in Cognitive Science, the study of its potential contribution to understding child developemnt and ageing, as well as its potential applications, is still in its infancy. This collection of articles explores the contribution of Embodied Cognition to studying the lifespan and potential applied fields. The contributions are theoretical and empirical and offer an important framework for future research and its applications.

The Adaptive Value of Languages: Non-Linguistic Causes of Language Diversity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456314 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-631-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The goal of this eBook is to shed light on the non-linguistic causes of language diversity, and in particular, to explore the possibility that some aspects of the structure of languages may result from an adaptation to the natural and/or human-made environment. Traditionally, language diversity has been claimed to result from random, internally-motivated changes in language structure. However, ongoing research suggests instead that different factors that are external to language can promote language change and ultimately account for aspects of language diversity, specifically features of the social and physical environments. The contributions in this eBook discuss whether some aspects of languages are an adaptation to ecological, social, or even technological niches.

Audiovisual Speech Recognition: Correspondence between Brain and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192519 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-251-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Perceptual processes mediating recognition, including the recognition of objects and spoken words, is inherently multisensory. This is true in spite of the fact that sensory inputs are segregated in early stages of neuro-sensory encoding. In face-to-face communication, for example, auditory information is processed in the cochlea, encoded in auditory sensory nerve, and processed in lower cortical areas. Eventually, these "sounds" are processed in higher cortical pathways such as the auditory cortex where it is perceived as speech. Likewise, visual information obtained from observing a talker’s articulators is encoded in lower visual pathways. Subsequently, this information undergoes processing in the visual cortex prior to the extraction of articulatory gestures in higher cortical areas associated with speech and language. As language perception unfolds, information garnered from visual articulators interacts with language processing in multiple brain regions. This occurs via visual projections to auditory, language, and multisensory brain regions. The association of auditory and visual speech signals makes the speech signal a highly "configural" percept. An important direction for the field is thus to provide ways to measure the extent to which visual speech information influences auditory processing, and likewise, assess how the unisensory components of the signal combine to form a configural/integrated percept. Numerous behavioral measures such as accuracy (e.g., percent correct, susceptibility to the “McGurk Effect”) and reaction time (RT) have been employed to assess multisensory integration ability in speech perception. On the other hand, neural based measures such as fMRI, EEG and MEG have been employed to examine the locus and or time-course of integration. The purpose of this Research Topic is to find converging behavioral and neural based assessments of audiovisual integration in speech perception. A further aim is to investigate speech recognition ability in normal hearing, hearing-impaired, and aging populations. As such, the purpose is to obtain neural measures from EEG as well as fMRI that shed light on the neural bases of multisensory processes, while connecting them to model based measures of reaction time and accuracy in the behavioral domain. In doing so, we endeavor to gain a more thorough description of the neural bases and mechanisms underlying integration in higher order processes such as speech and language recognition.

Components of the language-ready brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198931 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-893-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This volume highlights new avenues of research in the language sciences, and particularly, in the neurobiology of language. The term “language-ready brain” stresses, on the one hand, the importance of a brain-based description of our species’ linguistic capacity, and, on the other, the need to appreciate the crucial role culture plays in shaping the linguistic systems children acquire and adults use. For this reason, the focus is not put on language per se, but on our learning biases and cognitive pre-dispositions toward language. Both brain and culture are considered at two crucial levels of inquiry: phylogeny and ontogeny. In a fast-growing field like the language sciences and specifically, language evolution studies, this book has tried to capture several of the most exciting topics explored currently, sowing seeds for future investigations.

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