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Radiation-induced and oxidative DNA damages

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196609 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-660-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Abstract

DNA stores and passes the genetic information of almost all living organisms. Its molecular structure and their intramolecular interactions are particularly suitable to maximize stability against oxidative stress and UV-light absorption. Yet the protection and repair strategies are still error-prone: DNA lesions are produced, including the most complex and highly mutagenic ones. An important threat to DNA stability comes from photosensitization, i.e. from the dramatic multiplication of radiation-induced defects mediated by the presence of organic or organometallic dyes compared to the direct exposure to UVA radiation. Moreover, the photo-induced production of singlet oxygen generates an extremely high oxidative stress on DNA that, in vivo, normally results in extended cellular apoptosis. Elucidating the processes leading to DNA damages, from the production of a simple radical entity to deleterious lesions, as well as the opportunities of repair by devoted enzymes, is a cornerstone towards the development of more efficient protection strategies. Sensitization and selective production of DNA lesions can also be exploited to induce the selective apoptosis of cancer cells upon exposition to radiation or to oxidative stress, for instance in the field of photodynamic therapy. The importance and relevance of the field is witnessed by the impressive amount of high-level papers dealing with this complex subject, and notably tackling the structural elucidation of DNA and DNA-drug adducts, the mechanisms of formation of DNA lesions (including the precise detection of the final lesion products), as well as the influence of the lesions on the DNA stability and dynamics and the consequences on the ease of repair. Due to the complexity of the field lying at the frontiers between chemistry, physics and biology, multidisciplinary strategies allying modeling and experience are needed. This topic aims at giving an extended overview of the current research in the domain, with fundamental contribution from the leading groups in the field of DNA reactivity, structural characterization, photo-chemistry and photo-physics, as well as repair mechanism. It will therefore be a fundamental guide for scientists wanting to address the field of DNA lesion and repair, but also more generally for researchers working in rational drug design or in the development of biomarkers and medical imaging techniques.

The Reasoning Brain: The Interplay between Cognitive Neuroscience and Theories of Reasoning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451180 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-118-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Despite the centrality of rationality to our identity as a species (let alone the scientific endeavour), and the fact that it has been studied for several millennia, the present state of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning remains highly fragmented. For example, a recent review concluded that none of the extant (12!) theories provide an adequate account (Khemlani & Johnson- Laird, 2011), while other authors argue that we are on the brink of a paradigm change, where the old binary logic framework will be washed away and replaced by more modern (and correct) probabilistic and Bayesian approaches (see for example Elqayam & Over, 2012; Oaksford & Chater, 2009; Over, 2009). Over the past 15 years neuroscience brain imaging techniques and patient studies have been used to map out the functional neuroanatomy of reasoning processes. The aim of this research topic is to discuss whether this line of research has facilitated, hindered, or has been largely irrelevant for understanding of reasoning processes. The answer is neither obvious nor uncontroversial. We would like to engage both the cognitive and the neuroscience community in this discussion. Some of the questions of interest are: How have the data generated by the patient and neuroimaging studies: • influenced our thinking about modularity of deductive reasoning • impacted the debate between mental logic theory, mental model theory and the dual mechanism accounts • affected our thinking about dual mechanism theories • informed discussion of the relationship between induction and deduction • illuminated the relationship between language, visual spatial processing and reasoning • affected our thinking about the unity of deductive reasoning processes Have any of the cognitive theories of reasoning helped us explain deficits in certain patient populations? Do certain theories do a better job of this than others? Is there any value to localizing cognitive processes and identifying dissociations (for reasoning and other cognitive processes)? What challenges have neuroimaging data raised for cognitive theories of reasoning? How can cognitive theory inform interpretation of patient data or neuroimaging data? How can patient data or neuroimaging data best inform cognitive theory? This list of questions is not exhaustive. Manuscripts addressing other related questions are welcome. We are interested in hearing from skeptics, agnostics and believers, and welcome original research contributions as well as reviews, methods, hypothesis & theory papers that contribute to the discussion of the current state of our knowledge of how neuroscience is (or is not) helping us to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning processes.

Characterizing Cardiac Electrophysiology during Radiofrequency Ablation : An Integrative Ex vivo, In silico, and In vivo Approach

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783731508861 Year: Volume: 24 Pages: XI, 268 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000089807 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Catheter ablation is a major treatment for atrial tachycardias. Hereby, the precise monitoring of the lesion formation is an important success factor. This book presents computational, wet-lab, and clinical studies with the aim of evaluating the signal characteristics of the intracardiac electrograms (IEGMs) recorded around ablation lesions from different perspectives. The detailed analysis of the IEGMs can optimize the description of durable and complex lesions during the ablation procedure.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

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