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Labour Contracts and Labour Relations in Early Modern Central Japan

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Book Series: Changing Labour Relations in Asia ISBN: 9780203010075 9780415346054 9780415655347 9781134281442 9781134281435 9781134281398 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203010075 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology --- History --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:19
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Abstract

Based on a collection of labour contracts and other documents, this book examines the legal, economic and social relations of labour as they developed in the commercial enterprises of Tokugawa Japan. The urban focus is Kyoto, the cultural capital and smallest of the three great cities of the Tokugawa period, but the data comes from a wider region of commercial and castle towns and rural villages in central Japan.

Keywords

lineage --- business --- stem --- family --- soy --- sauce --- casual --- laborers --- kawachi --- province

Transnationalism and Genealogy

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ISBN: 9783039219087 / 9783039219094 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-909-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Transnationalism and genealogy is an emerging subfield of genealogy which intersects with other fields. The last two to three decades have witnessed a significant growth in this subfield, especially in the areas of transnationalism and family arrangements, transnational marriage, transnational adoption, transnational parenting, and transnational care for elderly parents. However, large gaps remain, especially with regard to the impact of transnationalism on lineage. In filling some lacunas in the current literature, Transnationalism and Genealogy represents an initial attempt to frame the relationship between transnationalism and genealogy. The articles included in this book cover various aspects of transnationalism and genealogy from historical periods until the present, with perspectives from anthropology, sociology, history, and African studies. The topics stretch from transnationalism and the emancipation of black kinship to the transformation of a Chinese immigrant family from traditional to transnational as well as the impact of this transformation on its family relations and lineage, a family history of transnational migration across four nation/city states in four generations, the role of social media platforms (Facebook in particular) in facilitating transnational care chains in the Trinidadian diasporic community, and a comparison between Chinese immigrants in the United States and Singapore in transnational parenting. The introductory essay offers a laconic assessment of the subfield of transnationalism and genealogy.

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213092 9783039213108 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-310-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic regions, and expanding human populations and associated shifts in land-use patterns? In this book, we explore these questions for assemblages of forest trees, shrubs, and understory herbs at spatial scales ranging from small plots to large forest dynamics plots, at temporal scales ranging from seasons to centuries, in both temperate and tropical regions, and across rural-to-urban gradients in land use.

Keywords

Ericaceae --- variation partitioning --- climate --- species-area relationship --- mid-domain effect --- spatial patterns --- individual species-area relationship --- tropical evergreen mixed forest --- competition and facilitation --- Vietnam --- microarthropod --- diversity --- seasonal variations --- stand development --- biodiversity --- climate --- human footprint --- productivity --- topography --- USDA Forest Service --- herbaceous layer --- excess nitrogen --- canopy structure --- temperate forests --- Fagus sylvatica --- Pinus sylvestris --- Picea abies --- Pseudotsuga menziesii --- forest management --- tree species diversity --- forest conversion --- gamma diversity --- landscape scale --- Biodiversity Exploratories --- climate change --- temperature --- precipitation --- Hubbard Brook --- elevational shifts --- mountains --- species diversity --- structural complexity --- legacies --- wind damage --- uprooting --- trunk breakage --- understory plant communities --- natural disturbance-based silviculture --- forest management --- species conservation --- northern hardwood forests --- abundance --- Bray-Curtis --- codispersion analysis --- Smithsonian ForestGEO --- Shannon diversity --- Simpson diversity --- spatial analysis --- species richness --- windthrow --- tornado --- tree species --- disturbance severity --- tree regeneration --- salvaging --- salvage logging --- succession --- Climatic change --- species diversity --- potential habitats --- China --- Maxent --- Salicaceae --- herbaceous perennial species --- household respondents --- questionnaire survey --- species richness --- woody species --- temperate forests --- species richness --- assemblage lineage diversity --- phylogenetic diversity --- evolutionary diversity --- United States --- trees --- TILD

Mycoviruses

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ISBN: 9783038979968 9783038979975 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-997-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

A virus (from the Latin word ‘v?rus’ meaning ‘venom’ or ‘poison’) is a microorganism invisible to the naked eye. Viruses can multiply exclusively by entering a cell and using the cell’s resources to create copies of themselves. As the origin of their name suggests, viruses are generally considered dangerous, harmful and often deadly. Some of the most well-studied and widely known viruses, such as HIV and influenza, infect humans. However, viruses can also infect animals, plants and microorganisms, including fungi. Many fungi are medically, ecologically and economically significant, for example, causing diseases to humans, plants and insects or being used in industry to produce bread, cheese, beer and wine. Viruses that infect fungi are called mycoviruses (from the Greek work ‘myco’, meaning ‘fungus’). Mycoviruses do not cause harm to or kill the infected fungus; in contrast, they are ‘friendly’ viruses and we can utilize them to control the growth, pathogenicity and toxin production of fungi. This book describes a range of different mycoviruses and their geographical distribution, transmission and evolution, together with their effects on the fungal hosts and how these are brought about.

Keywords

RNA silencing --- gemycircularvirus --- mycovirus --- antiviral --- dicer --- dsRNA mycoviruses --- multiplex PCR --- Aspergillus fumigatus chrysovirus --- Aspergillus fumigatus partitivirus-1 --- Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1. --- Botrytis cinerea --- hypovirus --- fusarivirus --- hypovirulence --- infection cushion --- Botrytis cinerea --- Botrytis cinerea mymonavirus 1 --- Mymonaviridae --- dsRNA virus --- mycovirus --- capsid protein --- capsid structure --- virus evolution --- viral lineage --- ScV-L-A --- PcV --- PsV-F --- RnQV1 --- chrysovirus --- mycovirus --- Aspergillus --- A. fumigatus --- A. nidulans --- A. niger --- A. thermomutatus --- biocontrol --- Saccharomyces paradoxus --- Totiviridae --- dsRNA virus --- killer system --- Trichoderma atroviride --- Mycovirus --- Partitivirus --- Fusarium head blight --- mycovirus --- RNA genome --- mitovirus --- Tymovirales --- Ethiopia --- Sclerotinia minor --- endornavirus --- hypovirulence --- transmissibility --- biological control --- Chalara fraxinea --- Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus --- ash dieback --- Narnaviridae --- evolution --- invasive species --- horizontal virus transmission --- Brunchorstia pinea --- conifers --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- ssRNA --- phylogeny --- evolution --- mycovirus --- Beauveria bassiana --- partitivirus --- victorivirus --- polymycovirus --- selection pressure --- recombination --- transmission --- mycovirus --- populations study --- Cryphonectria parasitica --- chestnut blight --- Castanea sativa --- biological control --- Mycovirus --- rice blast fungus --- Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 --- double-stranded RNA virus --- hypovirulence --- Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- Alphapartitivirus --- genomic structure analysis --- mycorrhizal fungi --- mycovirus --- mitovirus --- Rhizophagus --- hypovirus --- small RNA --- tRFs --- mycovirus --- fungal viruses --- dsRNA mycoviruses --- hypervirulence --- Leptosphaeria biglobosa quadrivirus --- Botrytis cinerea --- hypovirulence --- partitivirus --- conidiogenesis --- sclerogenesis --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- sequencing --- killer toxin --- totivirus --- brown rot --- stone fruit --- Prunus --- mycovirus --- hypervirulence --- hypovirulence --- isogenic --- database mining --- Entomophthora --- Entomophthoromycotina --- fungal virus --- mitochondrion --- mycovirus --- virus discovery --- Mitovirus --- Narnaviridae --- n/a

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