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Marine Lipids 2017

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ISBN: 9783038427995 9783038428008 Year: Pages: VIII, 160
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 13:04:57
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Abstract

Marine organisms are a well-known source of lipids with high nutritional value, such as n-3 fatty acids (e.g., 20:5 and 22:6), but also possess bioactive properties (e.g., polar lipids as glycolipids and phospholipids). Polar lipids are considered high added value bioactive molecules with health promoting effects, and with potential applications in food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries. Although some polar lipids of marine organisms are known to have functional properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial), the potential of these molecules is yet to be fully unravelled, as the lipidome of the majority of marine organisms remains largely unknown. Different marine organisms, even when closely related in the tree of life, display specific lipidome signatures, which are representative of the remarkable chemical biodiversity present in world oceans. Lipid composition can also change due to environmental and nutritional conditions. If one considers that each marine organism contains thousands of structurally and functionally diverse lipids, it is clear that the characterization of their lipidome is a challenging task. Nonetheless, in recent years, advanced analytical approaches coupling chromatography and mass spectrometry have emerged as powerful tools in lipidomic analysis. The resolution and high throughput analysis achieved with these analytical approaches has allowed researchers to identify and quantify the lipid species present on the cells and tissues of a diversity of marine organisms, opening new perspectives in the identification of lipid signatures for their valorisation and biotechnological applications.

Chemical Biology of Sterols, Triterpenoids and Other Natural Products: A Themed Issue in Honor of Professor W. David Nes on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783038974161 / 9783038974178 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-417-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

Sterols and other isoprenoids are of great interest for their molecular structure and function in cell architecture and evolution, as well as for their importance in medicine and agriculture. Molecules’ 2019 Festschrift Special Issue in honor of the 65th birthday of Prof. W. David Nes, an internationally recognized chemical biologist and recipient of the George Schroepher medal for sterol research, focuses on recent developments in the chemistry, biosynthesis, and function of these polycyclic natural products. This volume of Molecules contains 16 leading-edge review articles and original research contributions from an international cast of scientists. This volume is grouped into three sections: (i) isoprenoid metabolome and diversity, (ii) clinical evaluation of sterol and triterpene structures and biosynthesis, and (iii) methods and synthesis of steroids and other compounds. The volume will be a valuable reference tool for those who study medicinal chemistry, protein chemistry, and biochemistry of isoprenoid lipids.

Keywords

Zingiber officinale --- gingerols --- cytotoxic activity --- oleanolic acid --- high-fat high-carbohydrate diet --- pre-diabetes --- glucose homeostasis --- insulin resistance --- atherosclerosis --- ROS --- HUVECs --- LOX-1 --- alkaloid --- granatane --- N-methylcadaverine --- N-methylpiperidine. reductive deamination --- Mucorales --- Rhizopus arrhizus --- sterol pattern --- antifungal effectivity --- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) --- posaconazole --- sterol biosynthesis --- sterol 14?-demethylase --- sterol C24-methyltransferase --- mechanism-based inactivators --- antifungals --- azoles --- antiparasitic drugs --- human African trypanosomiasis --- Chagas disease --- synthesis --- squalene cyclase --- cycloartenol synthase --- triterpene --- fern --- Polystichum --- terpene --- isoprenoid --- divalent metal co-factor ligation --- antioxidant --- cholesterol --- degeneration --- oxysterol --- retina --- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome --- algal sterols --- ergosterol biosynthesis --- infectious disease --- lipidomics --- oxyphytosterol --- pharmacognosy --- phytosterol --- sterolomics --- lupeol --- keratinocytes --- fibroblasts --- wound healing --- cell migration --- UV-radiation --- ZnO --- toxicity --- sterol content --- cholesterol --- leishmania --- solanaceae --- withanolides --- aurelianolides --- phytosterols --- mesocarp --- oilseed --- maturity --- pod-blast --- ?-tocopherol --- oil bodies --- campesterol --- stigmasterol --- ?-sitosterol --- sterol --- C4-demethylation complex (C4DMC) --- 4-methylsterol --- hormone --- steroid --- development --- genetic disease --- bile alcohol --- cholestanoic acid --- oxysterol --- sterolomics --- enzyme-assisted derivatization --- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry --- Girard reagent --- n/a

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979302 / 9783038979319 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

Keywords

human milk --- breastfed infants --- body composition --- anthropometrics --- milk intake --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- maternal factors --- infant --- feeding --- preterm --- premature --- bottle --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- nipple shield --- infant feeding --- choline --- phosphocholine --- glycerophosphocholine --- lactation --- human milk --- infants --- adequate intake --- dietary recommendations --- Canada --- Cambodia --- breast milk --- galactogogues --- mothers of preterm infants --- breastfeeding --- attitudes --- knowledge --- midwifery --- formula supplementation --- justification of supplementation --- maternal wellbeing --- maternal distress --- post-partum distress --- breastfeeding support --- paternal role --- partner support --- infant --- Ireland --- passive immunity --- antibodies --- lactation --- peptidomics --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- preterm infant --- enteral nutrition --- lipids --- omega-3 fatty acids --- omega-6 fatty acids --- Docosahexaenoic acid --- Arachidonic acid --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- pregnancy --- breast milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- zinc deficiency --- plasma zinc --- lactating women --- zinc supplementation --- Quito --- Ecuador --- Andean region --- GDM --- lactation --- thyroid --- triiodothyronine --- thyroxine --- thyroid antibodies --- breastfeeding --- knowledge --- practice --- barriers --- social support --- professional support --- raw breast milk --- cytomegalovirus --- milk-acquired infections --- preterm infant --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- leptin --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- lactation --- human lactation --- expressing --- milk synthesis --- fat synthesis --- human milk --- milk metabolites --- lactation --- milk metabolomics --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- lipids --- lipidomics --- mass spectrometry --- chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- human milk --- sex-specificity --- infant growth --- early life nutrition --- postnatal outcomes --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- human milk --- colostrum --- IgA --- HGF --- TGF-? --- growth factors --- geographical location --- human milk --- potassium --- sodium --- ICP-OES --- ion selective electrode --- lactoferrin --- human milk --- infection --- immunity --- antisecretory factor --- human milk --- breast milk --- breastfeeding --- inflammation --- lactoferrin --- candida --- human milk --- milk cells --- immune cells --- antimicrobial proteins --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- ethnicity --- composition --- diet --- responsive feeding --- breastfeeding --- breastmilk --- babywearing --- co-sleeping --- mother–infant interaction --- feeding cues --- maternal responsiveness --- mother–infant physical contact --- proximal care --- fatty acids --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- endocannabinoids --- infant health --- breast milk --- casein --- whey --- protein --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- calculated daily intakes --- lactation --- human milk --- metabolites --- microbiome --- mode of delivery --- caesarean section --- proton nuclear magnetic resonance --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- body composition --- maternal diet --- infant growth --- appetite regulation --- N-acylethanolamines --- OEA --- SEA --- PEA --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- obesity --- Breastfeeding --- human lactation --- lactation --- human milk --- breast milk --- milk composition

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