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Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195718 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-571-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of transcripts that are in general longer than 200 nucleotides and that have no protein-coding potential. The vast majority of vertebrate genomes encode diverse and complex lncRNAs that play regulatory roles at almost every step of gene expression. Recently, increasing evidence has implicated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. The purpose of the Research Topic, "Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders", is to bring together leading researchers in the field who, through contributing to an organized and comprehensive collection of peer-reviewed articles, provide a broad perspective on the latest advances in the field. A number of interesting and cutting-edge areas will be covered as below, but this list is not exclusive:- The methodologies and technologies of identifying and studying lncRNAs - LncRNAs in gene-specific transcription - LncRNAs in epigenetic regulation - LncRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation - LncRNAs in disease - Mapping of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with disease.

Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420057 9783038420101 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 844 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:03:39
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Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420064 9783038420118 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 244 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:06:27
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Abstract

Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Towards New Promising Discoveries for Lung Cancer Patients: A Selection of Papers from the First Joint Meeting on Lung Cancer of the FHU OncoAge (Nice, France) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039214518 9783039214525 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-452-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This Special Issue of Cancers (Basel) is mainly dedicated to selecting papers from the talks given during the first Joint Meeting on Lung Cancer (JMLC) between the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas USA) and the Hospital University Federation (HUF) OncoAge (University Côte d’Azur, Nice, France) (Nice, September 2018). The central theme of JMLC is to discuss new advances and exchange ideas regarding lung cancer. Notably, the talks covered different topics on new therapeutic strategies (targeted therapy and immuno-oncology), molecular and cellular biology, biomarkers, and the epidemiology of lung cancer. Special attention was also given to lung cancer in elderly patients. The articles published in this Special Issue covered subjects such as the assessment of new biomarkers and new approaches for the early detection of lung cancer, epidemiological data, and emphasized a place for the newly characterized cellular pathways in lung cancer, which opens room for therapeutic perspectives for lung cancer patients.

Transcriptional Regulation: Molecules, Involved Mechanisms and Misregulation

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ISBN: 9783039212651 9783039212668 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-266-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Transcriptional regulation is a critical biological process involved in the response of a cell, a tissue or an organism to a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals. Besides, it controls the establishment and maintenance of cell identity throughout developmental and differentiation programs. This highly complex and dynamic process is orchestrated by a huge number of molecules and protein networks and occurs through multiple temporal and functional steps. Of note, many human disorders are characterized by misregulation of global transcription since most of the signaling pathways ultimately target components of transcription machinery. This book includes a selection of papers that illustrate recent advances in our understanding of transcriptional regulation and focuses on many important topics, from cis-regulatory elements to transcription factors, chromatin regulators and non-coding RNAs, other than several transcriptome studies and computational analyses.

Keywords

major depressive disorder --- glioblastoma --- differentially expressed genes --- transcriptomics --- common pathway --- mouse --- miR-25-3p --- Akt1 --- AP-2? --- promoter --- cell metabolism --- p57Kip2 --- CDKN1C --- epigenetics --- disease --- cell differentiation --- placenta --- long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) --- human --- pregnancy --- high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) --- transcriptome --- Rsh regulon --- Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1 --- sphingomonads --- RNA-seq --- N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone --- ppGpp --- selenium --- selenocysteine --- selenoproteins --- selenocysteine insertion sequence --- nonsense-mediated decay --- G-quadruplex --- transcriptional regulation --- promoter --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- PRDM gene family --- TCGA data analysis --- somatic mutations --- transcriptome profiling --- human malignancies --- tristetraprolin (TTP) --- tumorigenesis --- posttranscriptional regulation --- adenosine and uridine-rich elements (AREs) --- circRNA-disease associations --- pathway --- heterogeneous network --- Patau Syndrome --- cytogenetics --- FOXO1 --- transcription factor --- molecular pathways --- bioinformatics --- molecular docking --- and drug design --- transcription regulation --- gene expression --- causal inference --- enhancer activity --- insect --- transcription factors --- structures and functions --- research methods --- progress and prospects --- Pax3 --- Pteria penguin (Röding, 1798) --- tyrosinase --- melanin --- RNA interference --- liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) --- epigenetics --- gene expression --- nutrition --- transcription --- disorders --- mechanisms --- Crassostrea gigas --- Pacific oyster --- pediveliger larvae --- bioadhesive --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- interactome --- microscopy --- fertilization --- self-incompatibility --- transcriptome --- tea --- long non-coding RNAs --- cancer --- acute leukemia --- therapeutic targets --- Adiponectin --- cancer --- Adiponectin receptors --- obesity --- inflammatory response --- inflammation --- nutritional status --- n/a

Links between Fibrogenesis and Cancer: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039217069 9783039217076 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Tissue fibrosis may occur for unknown causes or be the consequence of many pathological conditions including chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, graft rejection, or malignancy. On the other hand, malignant tumors have been identified in fibrotic tissues decades ago, and now accumulating evidence suggests that fibrotic lesions enhance the risk of cancer in several organs such as liver, lungs, and breast. Disruption of an organ parenchymal cells and of its normal structural scaffold during tissue fibrogenesis appears to induce loss of cell polarity, promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation that may eventually lead to cancer development. Many cellular and molecular abnormalities including aberrant expression of microRNAs, genetic and epigenetic alterations, evasion or delayed apoptosis, unregulated intracellular signal pathways, and dysregulation or defective intercellular communications have been proposed to explain this link between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms of this fibrosis-to-cancer transition remain unclear. This book presents a collection of reviews and original articles summarizing recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer development in fibrotic organs.

Keywords

lung cancer --- renal injury --- fibrosis --- crizotinib --- anaplastic lymphoma kinase --- cystic formation --- pulmonary fibrosis --- butylidenephthalide --- SOX2 --- type I collagen --- bleomycin --- YAP --- TAZ --- Hippo pathway --- fibrosis --- cancer --- mechanotransduction --- TGF-? --- Wnt --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- tumor --- tumor necrosis factor ? --- cytokine --- growth factor --- inflammation --- clinical symptoms --- pathophysiology --- therapy --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- cirrhosis --- regeneration --- inflammation --- cytokines --- genetic instability --- reactive oxygen species --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) --- lung cancer (LC) --- non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) --- acute lung injury --- protein S --- apoptosis --- signal pathway --- Erk1/2 --- lipopolysaccharide --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential --- leiomyosarcoma --- myometrium --- immunohistochemistry --- marker --- pathology --- tumor --- diagnosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- tumor microenvironment --- nanoparticles --- breast cancer --- antitumor efficacy --- cirrhosis --- HBV --- HCV --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis --- lung cancer --- pathogenesis --- common pathways --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- fibrosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) --- hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) --- tumor microenvironment --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- non-alcoholic steatohepatitis --- fibrosis --- hepatic stellate cells --- extracellular matrix --- carcinogenesis --- angiogenesis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- extracellular matrix --- fibrosis --- heterogeneity --- interstitial fluid pressure --- metabolic reprogramming --- transforming growth factor-? --- tumor stiffness --- GPR40 --- GPR120 --- DHA --- omega-3 fatty acid --- SREBP-1 --- hepatocytes --- EMT --- lncRNA --- metastasis --- miRNA --- SMAD --- TGF-? --- targeted therapy --- tumor microenvironment --- n/a

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280728 9783039280735 Year: Pages: 375 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-073-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic and diverse multigene locus in all jawed vertebrate species that has an integral role in adaptive/innate immune systems, transplantation, and infectious and autoimmune diseases. The MHC supra-locus in mammalian vertebrates is usually partitioned into three distinct regions, known as classes I, II, and III, which, to varying extents, can be found conserved in nonmammalian jawed vertebrates, such as bony fish, amphibians, and bird lineages. The MHC gene region is characterized particularly by the expression of class I and class II glycoproteins that bind peptides derived from intracellular or extracellular antigens to circulating T-cells. While this expressed antigenic specificity remains the predominant interest with respect to MHC function and polymorphism in a population, a broader concept has emerged that examines the MHC as a multifunctional polymorphic controller that facilitates and regulates genome diversity with a much greater array of functions and effects than just MHC-restricted antigen recognition. This volume of 19 reprints presented by various experts and collected from the Special Issue of Cells on “MHC in Health and Disease” covers a broad range of topics on the genomic diversity of the MHC regulatory system in various vertebrate species, including MHC class I, II, and III genes; innate and adaptive immunity; neurology; transplantation; haplotypes; infectious and autoimmune diseases; fecundity; conservation; allelic lineages; and evolution. Taken together, these articles demonstrate the immense complexity and diversity of the MHC structure and function within and between different vertebrate species.

Keywords

MHC-I- and MHC-II-dependent inter-individual recognition --- MHC-II-associated sperm-egg recognition --- MHC-I-based mother-fetus recognition --- giant panda --- long-fragment super haplotype --- MHC --- genetic drift --- haplotype --- crested ibis --- founder effect --- bottleneck --- conservation genetics --- selection --- fish --- MHC --- polymorphism --- disease resistance --- quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies --- evolution --- HCP5 --- lncRNA --- MHC --- HLA --- human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) --- cancer --- autoimmune diseases --- competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) --- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- human papillomavirus (HPV) --- astrogliosis --- PNS/CNS interface --- microglial reaction --- synaptic covering --- ?2m knockout mice --- HLA-B27 --- viral peptides --- computational analysis --- ankylosing spondylitis --- KIR --- KIR–HLA pairs --- ethnic populations in China --- molecular dynamics simulation --- major histocompatibility complex --- antigen --- T-cell receptor --- domain movements --- autoimmunity --- risk genes --- expression --- regulation --- swine leukocyte antigen --- reproductive performance --- production trait --- haplotype --- micro-mini-pigs --- disease association --- haplotype --- HLA polymorphism --- major histocompatibility complex (MHC) --- pedigree --- phase --- protocol --- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) --- T1DGC --- type 1 diabetes (T1D) --- BK virus --- polyomavirus --- nephropathy --- human leukocyte antigen-E --- kidney transplantation --- MHC --- ancestral haplotype --- autoimmune disease --- cynomolgus macaque --- Macaca fascicularis --- MHC polymorphism --- experimental medicine --- nonhuman primate models --- DXO --- DOM3Z --- NELF-E --- RD --- SKIV2L --- SKI2W --- STK19 --- RP1 --- NSDK --- RLR --- miR1236 --- SVA --- RNA quality control --- 5??3? RNA decay --- 3??5? mRNA turnover --- antiviral immunity --- interferon ? --- promoter-proximal transcriptional pause --- exosomes --- nuclear kinase --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- Ski complex --- trichohepatoenteric syndrome --- melanoma --- major histocompatibility complex --- MHC --- evolution --- nonclassical --- fish --- MHC genes --- birds --- disease resistance --- orthology --- life history --- gene duplication --- long-read sequencing --- high-throughput sequencing --- concerted evolution --- ecology --- MHC --- major histocompatibility complex --- Old World camels --- camels --- dromedary --- Bactrian camel --- SNP --- n/a

Plant Protein and Proteome Altlas--Integrated Omics Analyses of Plants under Abiotic Stresses

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039219605 / 9783039219612 Year: Pages: 558 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-961-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Integrative omics of plants in response to stress conditions play more crucial roles in the post-genomic era. High-quality genomic data provide more deeper understanding of how plants to survive under environmental stresses. This book is focused on concluding the recent progress in the Protein and Proteome Atlas in plants under different stresses. It covers various aspects of plant protein ranging from agricultural proteomics, structure and function of proteins, and approaches for protein identification and quantification.

Keywords

proteomic --- postharvest freshness --- ATP synthase --- ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit (chloroplast) --- chlorophyll fluorescence parameters --- photosynthetic parameters --- drought stress --- Triticum aestivum L. --- comparative proteomic analysis --- iTRAQ --- VIGS --- Jatropha curcas --- phosphoproteomics --- seedling --- chilling stress --- regulated mechanism --- Alternanthera philoxeroides --- proteomic --- stem --- potassium --- stress --- Salinity stress --- Dunaliella salina --- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation --- differentially abundant proteins --- proteomics --- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --- salt stress --- E. angustifolia --- proteomics --- wheat --- root --- wood vinegar --- drought stress --- ROS --- ABA --- proteome --- maize --- AGPase --- phosphorylation --- brittle-2 --- phos-tagTM --- MIPS --- exon-intron structure diversity --- Gossypium hirsutum --- loss-of-function mutant --- root cell elongation --- CHA-SQ-1 --- cytomorphology --- pollen abortion --- proteomics --- wheat --- cotton --- somatic embryogenesis --- transdifferentiation --- quantitative proteomics --- regulation and metabolism --- molecular basis --- concerted network --- maize --- phosphoproteomics --- salt tolerance --- label-free quantification --- root and shoot --- sugar beet --- salt stress --- S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase --- ROS --- antioxidant enzyme --- cotton --- somatic embryogenesis --- transdifferentiation --- widely targeted metabolomics --- purine metabolism --- flavonoid biosynthesis --- molecular and biochemical basis --- transcript-metabolite network --- leaf sheath --- maturation --- transcriptional dynamics --- transcriptome --- abiotic stress --- silicate limitation --- diatom --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- natural rubber biosynthesis --- mass spectrometry --- rubber grass --- rubber latex --- shotgun proteomics --- Taraxacum kok-saghyz --- two-dimensional gel electrophoresis --- visual proteome map --- proteomics --- wheat --- drought --- leaf --- iTRAQ --- micro-exons --- constitutive splicing --- alternative splicing --- ancient genes --- domain --- radish --- heat stress --- transcriptome sequencing --- lncRNA --- miRNA --- physiological response --- Millettia pinnata --- woody oilseed plants --- seed development --- miRNA --- nitrogen fertilizer --- rice --- proteome --- cultivars --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- Nelumbo nucifera --- phylogeny --- genomics --- molecular mechanisms --- model plant --- proteomes --- iTRAQ --- filling kernel --- drought stress --- heat shock proteins --- Zea mays L. --- wucai --- low-temperature stress --- high-temperature stress --- proteomics --- redox homeostasis --- GLU1 --- glutathione --- heat response --- heat-sensitive spinach variety --- proteomics --- ROS scavenging --- inositol --- phosphatidylinositol --- phosphatase --- stress --- signaling pathway --- integrated omics --- plants under stress --- post-genomics era --- proteome atlas --- quantitative proteomics

Kidney Inflammation, Injury and Regeneration

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039285389 / 9783039285396 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-539-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still associated with high morbidity and mortality incidence rates, and also bears an elevated risk of subsequent chronic kidney disease. Although the kidney has a remarkable capacity for regeneration after injury and may recover completely depending on the type of renal lesions, the options for clinical intervention are restricted to fluid management and extracorporeal kidney support. The development of novel therapies to prevent AKI, to improve renal regeneration capacity after AKI, and to preserve renal function is urgently needed. The Special Issue covers research articles that investigated the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and injury during different renal pathologies, renal regeneration, diagnostics using new biomarkers, and the effects of different stimuli like medication or bacterial components on isolated renal cells or in vivo models. The Special Issue contains important reviews that consider the current knowledge of cell death and regeneration, inflammation, and the molecular mechanisms of kidney diseases. In addition, the potential of cell-based therapy approaches that use mesenchymal stromal/stem cells or their derivates is summarized. This edition is complemented by reviews that deal with the current data situation on other specific topics like diabetes and diabetic nephropathy or new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

kidney injury --- alport syndrome --- modifier gene --- nephrin --- podocin --- glomerular basement membrane --- slit diaphragm --- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- DSS-colitis --- glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) --- type IV collagen --- type I collagen --- type V collagen --- genotype --- IL-18 --- polymorphism --- renal cell carcinoma --- Taiwan --- mesenchymal stem cells --- acute and chronic kidney disease --- exosome --- natural products --- non-coding RNAs --- microRNAs --- long non-coding RNAs --- renal fibrosis --- biomarkers --- therapeutics targets --- rhabdomyolysis --- pigment nephropathy --- haem --- NLRP3 inflammasome --- acute kidney injury --- hypertension --- kidney --- molecular signaling --- hematuria --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- tubular injury --- AKI --- chronic kidney disease (CKD) --- mesenchymal stromal cells --- extracellular vesicles --- acute kidney injury --- modified-MSCs --- microRNA --- mesenchymal stem cell --- mesodermal stem cell --- renal ischemia-reperfusion --- inflammation --- kidney transplantation --- microRNA --- extracellular vesicles --- exosomes --- B-cell attracting chemokine --- CXCL13 --- kidney transplantation --- allograft rejection --- T cell-mediated rejection --- diabetic nephropathy --- lysophosphatidic acid --- lysophosphatidic acid receptor --- chronic kidney injury --- kidney proximal tubule --- acute kidney failure --- signal transduction --- transcription --- CREB Regulated Transcriptional Coactivators (CRTC) --- cAMP Regulatory Element Binding Protein (CREB) --- Salt Inducible Kinase (SIK) --- Class IIa Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) --- lncRNA --- long non-coding RNA --- miRNA --- kidney --- glomerulus --- podocyte --- acute kidney injury --- AKI --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetic kidney disease --- diabetic nephropathy --- inflammation --- signaling cascade --- ischemia-reperfusion --- acute kidney injury --- stem cell --- conditioned medium --- inflammation --- apoptosis --- necrosis --- regulated necrosis --- kidney injury --- tubular injury --- glomerular injury --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- omega-3 fatty acid --- inflammatory maker --- C-reactive protein --- interleukin-6 --- LPS-binding protein --- fibrosis --- pericyte --- myofibroblast --- endotoxemia-induced oliguric kidney injury --- arachidonic acid --- cyclooxygenase --- lipoxygenase --- cytochrome P450 --- kidney inflammation --- therapeutic target --- obese kidney fibrosis --- endotoxemia --- ROS --- cPLA2 and COX-2 --- IgA nephropathy --- KIT assay --- KIT-IgA score --- noninvasive --- diagnostics --- prediction --- diabetic kidney diseases --- xanthine oxidase --- glomerular damage --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- renal progenitors --- polyploidization --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetes mellitus --- GLP-1 receptor agonists --- SGLT2 inhibitors --- molecular mechanisms --- chemerin --- CmklR1 --- 2-kidney-1-clip --- 2k1c --- Thy1.1 nephritis --- renovascular hypertension --- renal inflammation --- renal injury --- renal fibrosis --- inflammation --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- Farnesiferol B --- Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) --- renal stem cells --- differentiation --- scattered tubular cells --- papilla --- niches --- renal tubular cells --- epithelial cells --- proximal tubule --- cytotoxicity --- injury --- inflammation --- empagliflozin --- dapagliflozin --- kidney --- n/a

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