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Hearing Voices, Demonic and Divine

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ISBN: 9780429423093 9781472453983 9780429750953 9780429750939 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780429423093 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:22
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The Open Access version of this book, available at www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781472453983, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivative 4.0 license. Experiences of hearing the voice of God (or angels, demons, or other spiritual beings) have generally been understood either as religious experiences or else as a feature of mental illness. Some critics of traditional religious faith have dismissed the visions and voices attributed to biblical characters and saints as evidence of mental disorder. However, it is now known that many ordinary people, with no other evidence of mental disorder, also hear voices and that these voices not infrequently include spiritual or religious content. Psychological and interdisciplinary research has shed a revealing light on these experiences in recent years, so that we now know much more about the phenomenon of "hearing voices" than ever before. The present work considers biblical, historical, and scientific accounts of spiritual and mystical experiences of voice hearing in the Christian tradition in order to explore how some voices may be understood theologically as revelatory. It is proposed that in the incarnation, Christian faith finds both an understanding of what it is to be fully human (a theological anthropology), and God’s perfect self-disclosure (revelation). Within such an understanding, revelatory voices represent a key point of interpersonal encounter between human beings and God.

Dissecting the function of networks underpinning language repetition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193646 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-364-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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In the 19th century, ground-breaking observations on aphasia by Broca and Wernicke suggested that language function depends on the activity of the cerebral cortex. At the same time, Wernicke and Lichtheim also elaborated the first large-scale network model of language which incorporated long-range and short-range (transcortical connections) white matter pathways in language processing. The arcuate fasciculus (dorsal stream) was traditionally viewed as the major language pathway for repetition, but scientists also envisioned that white matter tracts travelling through the insular cortex (ventral stream) and transcortical connections may take part in language processing. Modern cognitive neuroscience has provided tools, including neuroimaging, which allow the in vivo examination of short- and long-distance white matter pathways binding cortical areas essential for verbal repetition. However, this state of the art on the neural correlates of language repetition has revealed contradictory findings, with some researchers defending the role of the dorsal and ventral streams, whereas others argue that only cortical hubs (Sylvian parieto-temporal cortex [Spt]) are crucially relevant. An integrative approach would conceive that the interaction between these structures is essential for verbal repetition. For instance, different sectors of the cerebral cortex (e.g., Spt, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula) act as hubs dedicated to short-term storage of verbal information or articulatory planning and these areas in turn interact through forward and backward white matter projections. Importantly, white matter pathways should not be considered mere cable-like connections as changes in their microstructural properties correlate with focal cortical activity during language processing tasks. Despite considerable progress, many outstanding questions await response. The articles in this Research Topic tackle many different and critical new questions, including: (1) how white matter pathways instantiate dialogues between different cortical language areas; (2) what are the specific roles of different white matter pathways in language functions in normal and pathological conditions; (3) what are the language consequences of discrete damage to branches of the dorsal and ventral streams; 4) what are the consequences (e.g., release from inhibition) of damage to the left white matter pathways in contralateral ones and viceversa; (5) how these pathways are reorganised after brain injury; (5) can the involvement/sparing of white matter pathways be used in outcome prediction and treatment response; and (5) can the microstructure of white matter pathways be remodelled with intensive rehabilitation training or biological approaches.This Research Topic includes original studies, and opinion and review articles which describe new data as well as provocative and insightful interpretations of the recent literature on the role of white matter pathways in verbal repetition in normal and pathological conditions. A brief highlight summary of each is provided below.

Neuronal mechanisms of epileptogenesis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193820 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-382-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Several types of brain injuries are causes of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The seizure-free "latent period" that often follows the brain injury is of unknown mechanistic significance but is commonly considered as the "epileptogenic" period characterized by gradual pathogenic processes leading to the onset of clinically detectable epilepsy. Acute convulsive status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with an adverse developmental outcome characterized by learning disabilities related to the cumulative effects of seizures and development of TLE. The symptomatic manifestations of TLE appear only after a widespread irreversible damage of entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus, the brain area most affected by this disease. These pathological features of TLE reduce the possibility of successful therapeutic approaches, often rendering the disease refractory. The difficult clinical management of chronic TLE and the limited success rate of surgical approaches, increase the incapacitating nature of this specific epileptic disorder. Prevention of TLE with an appropriate intervention after a known inciting event (in the case of acquired epilepsy) might represent the most ambitious goal in the clinical treatment of this epileptic disorder, but has been largely unsuccessful to this point. Clinical trials aimed at prevention of chronic epilepsy have often produced negative, disappointing results. However, in most cases, these studies ultimately evaluated the downstream clinical manifestations, failing to monitor early, specific molecular epileptogenic events. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of epileptogenesis, and their time course(s) are essential. The primary purpose of this topic is to collect scientific contributions providing novel insights in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis as potential targets for innovative therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing the chronic epileptic disorder.

Progress in Episodic Memory Research

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198474 Year: Pages: 513 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-847-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember personal experiences in terms of what happened and where and when it happened. Humans are also able to remember the specific perceptions, emotions and thoughts they had during a particular experience. This highly sophisticated and unique memory system is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The field of episodic memory research is a continuously expanding and fascinating area that unites a broad spectrum of scientists who represent a variety of research disciplines including neurobiology, medicine, psychology and philosophy. Nevertheless, important questions still remain to be addressed. This research topic on the Progress in Episodic Memory Research covers past and current directions in research dedicated to the neurobiology, neuropathology, development, measurement and treatment of episodic memory.

Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics

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ISBN: 9783038975946 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-595-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Understanding of the role of turbulence in controlling transport processes is of paramount importance for the preservation and protection of aquatic ecosystems, the minimization of the deleterious consequences of anthropogenic activity, and the successful sustainable development of river and maritime areas. In this context, the present Special Issue collects 15 papers which provide a representation of the present understanding of turbulent processes and their effects in river and maritime environments. The presented collection of papers is not exhaustive, but it highlights the key priority areas and knowledge gaps in this field of research. The published papers present the state-of-the-art knowledge of complex environmental flows which are useful for researchers and practitioners. The paper contents are an overview of some recent topics of research and an exposure of the current and future challenges associated with these topics.

Keywords

breaking waves --- turbulence invariants --- laboratory experiments --- flow-through system --- tidal inlets --- residence time --- coastal lagoon --- MIKE 3 FM (HD & --- TR) --- MIKE 21 FM (HD) --- dense jet --- current flow --- velocity --- trajectory --- turbulence --- dissipation --- rivers --- meanders --- turbulence --- secondary motion --- prediction --- bedrock canyon --- ADCP --- eddy viscosity --- bed shear stress --- spatial analysis --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics models --- physical modelling --- plunging breaking waves --- vorticity --- turbulent jet --- wave–current interaction --- spectral dissipation --- bottom friction --- numerical model --- hydrodynamic model --- spectral model --- wave attenuation --- energy dissipation --- drag coefficient --- flexible vegetation --- Spartina maritima --- vegetation patch --- wake region --- submerged ratio --- SVF --- channel confluences --- junction angle --- flow deflection zone --- flow retardation zone --- flow separation zone --- numerical modelling --- PANORMUS --- jets --- waves --- turbulence --- mixing --- diffusion --- advection --- river mouth --- flow mixing --- nonlinear shallow water equations --- macrovortices --- sub-grid turbulence --- seabed friction --- flow resistance --- roughness --- gravel-bed rivers --- casting technique --- CFD --- Kelvin–Helmholtz --- billow --- lobe --- cleft --- gravity current --- surface waves --- inclined negatively buoyant jets --- regular waves --- dilution --- sea discharges --- rivers --- maritime areas --- turbulent processes

Ultrasound B-mode Imaging: Beamforming and Image Formation Techniques

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211999 / 9783039212002 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-200-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Ultrasound medical imaging stands out among the other diagnostic imaging modalities for its patient-friendliness, high temporal resolution, low cost, and absence of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, it may still suffer from limited detail level, low signal-to-noise ratio, and narrow field-of-view. In the last decade, new beamforming and image reconstruction techniques have emerged which aim at improving resolution, contrast, and clutter suppression, especially in difficult-to-image patients. Nevertheless, achieving a higher image quality is of the utmost importance in diagnostic ultrasound medical imaging, and further developments are still indispensable. From this point of view, a crucial role can be played by novel beamforming techniques as well as by non-conventional image formation techniques (e.g., advanced transmission strategies, and compounding, coded, and harmonic imaging). This Special Issue includes novel contributions on both ultrasound beamforming and image formation techniques, particularly addressed at improving B-mode image quality and related diagnostic content. This indeed represents a hot topic in the ultrasound imaging community, and further active research in this field is expected, where many challenges still persist.

Dissimilar Metal Welding

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219544 / 9783039219551 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-955-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The combination of distinct materials is a key issue in modern industry, whereas the driving concept is to design parts with the right material in the right place. In this framework, a great deal of attention is directed towards dissimilar welding and joining technologies. In the automotive sector, for instance, the concept of “tailored blanks”, introduced in the last decade, has further highlighted the necessity to weld dissimilar materials. As far as the aeronautic field is concerned, most structures are built combining very different materials and alloys, in order to match lightweight and structural performance requirements. In this framework, the application of fusion welding techniques, namely, tungsten inert gas or laser welding, is quite challenging due to the difference in physical properties, in particular the melting point, between adjoining materials. On the other hand, solid-state welding methods, such as the friction stir welding as well as linear friction welding processes, have already proved to be capable of manufacturing sound Al-Cu, Al-Ti, Al-SS, and Al-Mg joints, to cite but a few. Recently, promising results have also been obtained using hybrid methods. Considering the novelty of the topic, many relevant issues are still open, and many research groups are continuously publishing valuable results. The aim of this book is to finalize the latest contributions on this topic.

Keywords

dissimilar joints --- friction stir welding --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- local strength mismatch --- dissimilar metal welded joint --- fracture resistance --- crack growth path --- optimal design --- laser beam welding --- spatial beam oscillation --- dissimilar metals --- aluminum --- copper --- friction stir welding --- aluminum --- copper --- cross-section adjustment --- mechanical properties --- electrical properties --- dissimilar weld --- ageing --- tensile properties --- hardness --- failure mode --- dissimilar metal welding --- Inconel 625 --- AISI 316L --- microstructure --- filler metals --- friction stir spot welding --- friction stir spot brazing --- joining area --- fracture load --- Al/steel dissimilar materials --- friction stir welding --- interface --- intermetallic compounds --- dual-beam laser welding --- steel/Al joint --- side-by-side configuration --- tensile resistance --- EBSD phase mapping --- pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding --- interfacial crack initiation --- dissimilar Ti6Al4V/AA6060 lap joint --- phase potential --- laser welding --- pulsed Nd:YAG laser --- DP1000 steel --- 1050 aluminum alloy --- dissimilar materials welding --- steel/aluminum joint --- Ag-Cu-Zn --- Rare earth --- aging treatment --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- aluminum --- dissimilar --- friction stir welding --- FSW --- hardness --- microstructure --- tensile --- magnetic pulse welding --- dissimilar metal welding --- solid state welding --- welding window --- cloud of particles --- jet --- surface activation --- welding-brazing --- arc assisted laser method --- aluminum-steel butt joint --- mechanical properties --- DeltaSpot welding --- spooling process tape --- aluminum alloy --- dissimilar metal welding --- lobe curve --- electromagnetic pulse welding --- tubular joints --- internal supports --- n/a

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