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Viral Interactions with Host RNA Decay Pathways

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ISBN: 9783038425021 9783038425038 Year: Pages: VIII, 98 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:10:10
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Eukaryotes have evolved a wide variety of RNA decay pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis, carry out programs of gene expression, and respond to changing environmental conditions. Individual RNA turnover mechanisms can operate constitutively or under only particular cellular conditions; similarly, some target many RNAs, while others act with great specificity. It has become increasingly clear that there are extensive interactions between viruses and the host RNA decay machinery. Often, the cellular RNA decay machinery poses a threat to viral gene expression, but viruses can also manipulate RNA decay pathways to promote viral replication. This special issue focuses on how cellular RNA decay factors recognize and degrade viral RNAs and viral strategies to subvert or evade these pathways.

Relevance of Translational Regulation on Plant Growth and Environmental Responses

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454136 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-413-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Plants, as sessile organisms, are exposed to a large array of challenging external and internal alterations that may restrict plant growth. These limiting growth conditions activate plant signalling responses which eventually target the protein synthesis machinery to rapidly reprogram plant metabolism to adapt to the new situation. Thus, the control of mRNA translation is one key regulatory step of gene expression and it is an essential molecular mechanism used by plants to bring about impressive growth plasticity. Compared to the vast number of studies aimed to identify plant transcriptional changes upon hormonal or environmental cues, the subsequent steps of mRNA transport, stability, storage, and eventually translational regulation, have been less studied in plants. This lack of knowledge concerns not only the fate of protein-coding transcripts in plants, but also the biogenesis and maturation of rRNAs, tRNAs and the plant translation factors involved. In this eBook we have focused on how internal cues and external signals of either biotic or abiotic origin impact translation to adjust plant growth and development. We have collected altogether ten scientific contributions to extend the knowledge on plant post-transcriptional and translational events that regulate the production of proteins that execute the required cellular functions. We hope that this compilation of original research articles and reviews will provide the readers with a detailed update on the state of knowledge in this field, and also with additional motivation to improve plant growth adaptation to future environmental challenges.

Plants as alternative hosts for human and animal pathogens

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195787 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-578-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Many of the most prevalent and devastating human and animal pathogens have part of their lifecycle out-with the animal host. These pathogens have a remarkably wide capacity to adapt to a range of quite different environments: physical, chemical and biological, which is part of the key to their success. Many of the well-known pathogens that are able to jump between hosts in different biological kingdoms are transmitted through the faecal-oral and direct transmission pathways, and as such have become important food-borne pathogens. Some high-profile examples include fresh produce-associated outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Other pathogens may be transmitted via direct contact or aerosols are include important zoonotic pathogens. It is possible to make a broad division between those pathogens that are passively transmitted via vectors and need the animal host for replication (e.g. virus and parasites), and those that are able to actively interact with alternative hosts, where they can proliferate (e.g. the enteric bacteria). This research topic will focus on plants as alternative hosts for human pathogens, and the role of plants in their transmission back to humans. The area is particularly exciting because it opens up new aspects to the biology of some microbes already considered to be very well characterised. One aspect of cross-kingdom host colonisation is in the comparison between the hosts and how the microbes are able to use both common and specific adaptations for each situation. The area is still in relative infancy and there are far more questions than answers at present. We aim to address important questions underlying the interactions for both the microbe and plant host in this research topic.

Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9783038979708 / 9783038979715 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-971-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Mercury is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems. This Special Issue collects three review papers and six research articles that report on the latest findings on the mechanisms of mercury toxicology and its impacts on environmental health. This collection of papers provides useful, new information on the mechanisms of mercury toxicity and methods of improving the risk assessment of mercury exposure.

Tea in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038979869 / 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

Regulatory microRNA

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ISBN: 9783038977681 9783038977698 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-769-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Keywords

tensor decomposition --- miRNA transfection --- sequence-nonspecific off-target regulation --- extracellular vesicles --- cancer --- therapeutics --- miRNA --- virus --- host --- Cross-Kingdom --- target prediction --- microRNAs --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- cardiac diseases --- biomarker --- calf --- Ileum --- miRNA-mRNA integration --- miRNA sequencing --- growth --- development --- microRNA --- myelodysplastic syndromes --- acute myeloid leukemia --- azacitidine --- 14q32 --- MEG3 --- autophagy regulator --- transcriptional factor --- non-coding RNA --- regulatory network --- RWR algorithm --- circular RNA --- circFGFR2 --- FGFR2 --- miR-133a-5p --- miR-29b-1-5p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation --- breast cancer --- CAFs --- estrogens --- GPER --- miR-338-3p --- c-Fos --- Cyclin D1 --- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --- biomarker --- microRNA --- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) --- muscle biopsy --- circulating miRNAs --- RNA interference --- small interfering RNA --- microRNA --- oncolytic virotherapy --- conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) --- biomarker --- gene --- microRNA --- parkinson’s disease --- miRNA --- bioinformatic analysis --- ischemic stroke --- miRNA-gene target interaction --- network --- biomarker --- diagnosis --- prognosis --- microRNAs --- epigenetic biomarker --- sepsis --- inflammation --- Teleostei --- embryogenesis --- tissue-enriched miRNAs --- post-transcriptional gene regulation --- miRNA expression and regulation --- passenger miRNA --- biomarker --- vascular injury --- smooth muscle cells --- porcine vein graft and stent models --- bone angiogenesis --- osteogenesis --- angiogenic-osteogenic coupling --- microRNAs --- bone regeneration --- bone formation --- bone tissue-engineering --- angiomiRs --- osteomiRs --- hypoxamiRs --- circular RNA --- circHIPK3 --- microRNA --- miR-30a-3p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation

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