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Melothesia in Babylonia. Medicine, Magic, and Astrology in the Ancient Near East

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ISBN: 9781614516934 9781614517757 9781614519348 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.1515/9781614516934 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:06

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This book examines the Babylonian backgroundof melothesia, the science of charting zodiac influences on the human body, which transformed older divination by connecting astrology with medical techniques. Special attention is given to a text from late-5th-century Uruk, which is argued to be an important representative of this new approach to the healing arts, previously only known from Greek and medieval astrology.

Keywords

astrology --- medicine --- magic --- melothesia

Assyrian and Babylonian Scholarly Text Catalogues. Medicine, Magic and Divination

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Book Series: Die babylonisch-assyrische Medizin in Texten und Untersuchungen ISBN: 9781501504914 Year: Volume: Band 9 Pages: 390 DOI: 10.1515/9781501504914 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Medicine (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-11 11:41:34
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The reconstruction of ancient Mesopotamian medical, ritual and omen compendia and their complex history is still characterised by many difficulties, debates and gaps due to fragmentary or unpublished evidence. This book offers the first complete edition of the Assur Medical Catalogue, an 8th or 7th century BCE list of therapeutic texts, which forms a core witness for the serialisation of medical compendia in the 1st millennium BCE. The volume presents detailed analyses of this and several other related catalogues of omen series and rituals, constituting the corpora of divination and healing disciplines. The contributions discuss links between catalogues and textual sources, providing new insights into the development of compendia between serialization, standardization and diversity of local traditions. Though its a novel corpus-based approach, this volume revolutionizes the current understanding of Mesopotamian medical texts and the healing disciplines of conjurer and physician. The research presented here allows one to identify core text corpora for these disciplines, as well as areas of exchange and borrowings between them.

Bild und Schrift auf 'magischen' Artefakten

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Materiale Textkulturen ISSN: 2198-6932 ISBN: 9783110604337 Year: Volume: 19 Pages: 267 DOI: 10.1515/9783110604337 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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Discussion about artifacts with “magical” effects generally focuses on the explicit messages written on them, but what is the relationship between text and image? Does the “magic” come from an interaction between these two elements or should they be interpreted separately? This volume examines the intricate relationship between text and image on amulets and cameos, among others, across different cultures and centuries.

Executing Magic in the Modern Era: Criminal Bodies and the Gallows in Popular Medicine

Authors: ---
Book Series: Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife ISBN: 9783319595184 9783319595191 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59519-1 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 15:55:19
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This book explores the magical and medical history of executions from the eighteenth to the early twentieth century by looking at the afterlife potency of criminal corpses, the healing activities of the executioner, and the magic of the gallows site. The use of corpses in medicine and magic has been recorded back into antiquity. The lacerated bodies of Roman gladiators were used as a source of curative blood, for instance. In early modern Europe, a great trade opened up in ancient Egyptian mummies and the fat of executed criminals, plundered as medicinal cure-alls. However, this is the first book to consider the demand for the blood of the executed, the desire for human fat, the resort to the hanged man’s hand, and the trade in hanging rope in the modern era. It ends by look at the spiritual afterlife of dead criminals.

The Psychology of Magic and the Magic of Psychology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450084 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-008-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Magicians have dazzled audiences for many centuries; however, few researchers have studied how, let alone why, most tricks work. The psychology of magic is a nascent field of research that examines the underlying mechanisms that conjurers use to achieve enchanting phenomena, including sensory illusions, misdirection of attention, and the appearance of mind-control and nuanced persuasion. Most studies to date have focused on either the psychological principles involved in watching and performing magic or “neuromagic” - the neural correlates of such phenomena. Whereas performers sometimes question the contributions that modern science may offer to the advancement of the magical arts, the history of magic reveals that scientific discovery often charts new territories for magicians. In this research topic we sketch out the symbiotic relationship between psychological science and the art of magic. On the one hand, magic can inform psychology, with particular benefits for the cognitive, social, developmental, and transcultural components of behavioural science. Magicians have a large and robust set of effects that most researchers rarely exploit. Incorporating these effects into existing experimental, even clinical, paradigms paves the road to innovative trajectories in the study of human behaviour. For example, magic provides an elegant way to study the behaviour of participants who may believe they had made choices that they actually did not make. Moreover, magic fosters a more ecological approach to experimentation whereby scientists can probe participants in more natural environments compared to the traditional lab-based settings. Examining how magicians consistently influence spectators, for example, can elucidate important aspects in the study of persuasion, trust, decision-making, and even processes spanning authorship and agency. Magic thus offers a largely underused armamentarium for the behavioural scientist and clinician. On the other hand, psychological science can advance the art of magic. The psychology of deception, a relatively understudied field, explores the intentional creation of false beliefs and how people often go wrong. Understanding how to methodically exploit the tenuous twilight zone of human vulnerabilities – perceptual, logical, emotional, and temporal – becomes all the more revealing when top-down influences, including expectation, symbolic thinking, and framing, join the fray. Over the years, science has permitted magicians to concoct increasingly effective routines and to elicit heightened feelings of wonder from audiences. Furthermore, on occasion science leads to the creation of novel effects, or the refinement of existing ones, based on systematic methods. For example, by simulating a specific card routine using a series of computer stimuli, researchers have decomposed the effect to assess its essential elements. Other magic effects depend on meaningful psychological knowledge, such as which type of information is difficult to retain or what changes capture attention. Behavioural scientists measure and study these factors. By combining analytical findings with performer intuitions, psychological science begets effective magic. Whereas science strives on parsimony and independent replication of results, magic thrives on reproducing the same effect with multiple methods to obscure parsimony and minimise detection. This Research Topic explores the seemingly orthogonal approaches of scientists and magicians by highlighting the crosstalk as well as rapprochement between psychological science and the art of deception.

Keywords

Magic --- Psychology --- deception --- Misdirection --- persuasion --- Illusion --- wonder

The Mythology in Our Language

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780990505068 Year: Language: English
Publisher: HAU Books Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101682
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:05
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In 1931 Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote his famous Remarks on Frazer’s “Golden Bough.". At that time, anthropology and philosophy were in close contact—continental thinkers drew heavily on anthropology’s theoretical terms, like mana, taboo, and potlatch, in order to help them explore the limits of human belief and imagination. Now the book receives its first translation by an anthropologist, in the hope that it can kick-start a new era of interdisciplinary fertilization. Wittgenstein’s remarks on ritual, magic, religion, belief, ceremony, and Frazer’s own logical presuppositions are as lucid and thought-provoking now as they were in Wittgenstein’s day. Anthropologists find themselves asking many of the same questions as Wittgenstein—and in a reflection of that, this volume is fleshed out with a series of engagements from some of the world’s leading anthropologists, including Veena Das, David Graeber, Wendy James, Heonik Kwon, Michael Lambek, Michael Puett, and Carlo Severi.

Keywords

Anthropology --- Philosophy --- Magic --- Ritual --- Kingship --- Logic --- Mind

Performanz und Imagination in der Oralkultur Südosteuropas

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ISBN: 9783205203278 Year: Pages: 600 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_626331 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 370
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-30 11:01:20
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This monograpy analyses forms of performativity in the oral cultures of Southeast-Europe, as gestures, masks and disguising, theatrical customs, popular and professional theatre, as well as forms of imagination, like superstitions, magic practices, popular religion, demonology, etc.

Invisible, but how? The depth of unconscious processing as inferred from different suppression techniques

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194209 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-420-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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To what level are invisible stimuli processed by the brain in the absence of conscious awareness? It is widely accepted that simple visual properties of invisible stimuli are processed; however, the existence of higher-level unconscious processing (e.g., involving semantic or executive functions) remains a matter of debate. Several methodological factors may underlie the discrepancies found in the literature, such as different levels of conservativeness in the definition of “unconscious” or different dependent measures of unconscious processing. In this research topic, we are particularly interested in yet another factor: inherent differences in the amount of information let through by different suppression techniques. In the same conditions of well-controlled, conservatively established invisibility, can we show that some of the techniques in the “psychophysical magic” arsenal (e.g., masking, but also visual crowding, attentional blink, etc.) reliably lead to higher-level unconscious processing than others (e.g., interocular suppression)? Some authors have started investigating this question, using multiple techniques in similar settings . We argue that this approach should be extended and refined. Indeed, in order to delineate the frontiers of the unconscious mind using a contrastive method, one has to disentangle the limits attributable to unawareness itself, and those attributable to the technique inducing unawareness. The scope of this research topic is to provide a platform for scientists to contribute insights and further experiments addressing this fundamental question.

Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681

Author:
ISBN: 9789198376876 Year: Pages: 360 Language: English
Publisher: Lund University Press
Subject: History --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 11:21:02
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This book situates witchcraft drama within its cultural and intellectual context, highlighting the centrality of scepticism and belief in witchcraft to the genre. It is argued that these categories are most fruitfully understood not as static and mutually exclusive positions within the debate around witchcraft, but as rhetorical tools used within it. In drama, too, scepticism and belief are vital issues. The psychology of the witch character is characterised by a combination of impious scepticism towards God and credulous belief in the tricks of the witch’s master, the devil. Plays which present plausible depictions of witches typically use scepticism as a support: the witch’s power is subject to important limitations which make it easier to believe. Plays that take witchcraft less seriously present witches with unrestrained power, an excess of belief which ultimately induces scepticism. But scepticism towards witchcraft can become a veneer of rationality concealing other beliefs that pass without sceptical examination. The theatrical representation of witchcraft powerfully demonstrates its uncertain status as a historical and intellectual phenomenon; belief and scepticism in witchcraft drama are always found together, in creative tension with one another.

The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies

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ISBN: 9783038978480 / 9783038978497 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-849-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In this volume of 15 articles, contributors from a wide range of disciplines present their analyses of Disney movies and Disney music, which are mainstays of popular culture. The power of the Disney brand has heightened the need for academics to question whether Disney’s films and music function as a tool of the Western elite that shapes the views of those less empowered. Given its global reach, how the Walt Disney Company handles the role of race, gender, and sexuality in social structural inequality merits serious reflection according to a number of the articles in the volume. On the other hand, other authors argue that Disney productions can help individuals cope with difficult situations or embrace progressive thinking. The different approaches to the assessment of Disney films as cultural artifacts also vary according to the theoretical perspectives guiding the interpretation of both overt and latent symbolic meaning in the movies. The authors of the 15 articles encourage readers to engage with the material, showcasing a variety of views about the good, the bad, and the best way forward.

Keywords

content analysis --- cultivation --- Disney --- family --- family structure --- family function --- Elsa --- Kristoff --- Olaf --- Marshmallow --- Let it Go --- enchantment --- applause --- engagement ring --- diamond --- gender --- snowmen --- wedding toast --- bullroarer --- fireworks --- witches --- magic --- standing ovation --- fertility --- parthenogenesis --- gender nonconformity --- non-binary --- storms --- family jewels --- snowflake --- feminism --- Moana --- Disney --- music --- colonialism --- imperialism --- appropriation --- Polynesia --- Disney --- EPCOT --- music --- appropriation --- world --- park --- entertainment --- sounds --- cultures --- Disney --- princess --- gender roles --- stereotyping --- children’s media --- death --- children --- Disney --- coping mechanisms --- Africana --- alternative royals --- intersectionality --- matrix of domination --- Disney --- gender --- motherhood --- media criticism --- family roles --- masculinity --- empowered mothering --- Pixar --- Disney --- postfeminism --- masculinity --- gender --- cultural studies --- Dumbo --- Lilo &amp --- Stitch --- Disney --- queer --- mean girls --- boobs and boyfriends --- girl cartoon --- gender --- pink elephants --- commodification --- Walter Benjamin --- diversity --- hegemony --- Disney --- coloniality --- adaptation --- Disney --- gender --- feminism --- political economy of film --- feminist film criticism --- feminist political economy of media --- gender stereotypes --- sexuality --- heroism --- hypermasculinity --- selflessness --- Hercules --- Zeus --- Megara --- Disney --- princess --- prince --- gender roles --- content coding analysis --- children’s media --- Disney --- girls --- beauty --- transnational media --- princess

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