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Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage

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ISBN: 9783039285402 9783039285419 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-541-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Abstract

Thousands of arthropod species, ranging from arachnids (spiders and scorpions) to hymenopterans (ants, bees, and wasps) and myriapods (centipedes), are venomous and use their venoms for both defense and predation. These venoms are invariably harmful to humans, and some may cause serious injuries, e.g., those from scorpions, spiders, and wasps. Arthropods’ venoms are also known as rich sources of biologically active compounds and have attracted the attention of toxin researchers for years. In this century, venom component analysis has progressed considerable due to the advances in analytical techniques, in particular, mass spectrometry and next-generation deep (DNA and RNA) sequencing. As such, proteomic and peptidomic analyses using LC–MS have enabled the full analysis of venom components, revealing a variety of novel peptide and protein toxins sequences and scaffolds, potentially useful as pharmacological research tools and for the development of highly selective peptide ligands and therapeutic leads, like chlorotoxin. Due to their specificity for numerous ion-channel subtypes, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, arthropod neurotoxins have been investigated to dissect and treat neurodegenerative diseases and control epileptic syndromes. This Special Issue collects information on such progress, encouraging contributions on the chemical and biological characterization of venom components, not only peptides and proteins, but also small molecules, their mechanisms of action, and the development of venom-derived peptide leads.

Keywords

ant --- venom --- mass spectrometry analysis --- pilosulin-like peptide --- phospholipases D --- metalloproteases --- Loxosceles spp. --- recombinant toxins --- hybrid immunogen --- neutralizing antibodies --- antivenoms --- LyeTxI-b --- Staphylococcus aureus --- keratitis --- AMP --- mastoparan --- Acinetobacter baumannii --- stent --- cantharidin --- blister beetle --- Berberomeloe majalis --- nematicide --- ixodicide --- antifeedant --- scorpion venom --- insecticidal peptide --- mass spectrometric analysis --- de novo sequencing --- Centruroides limpidus Karch --- proteome --- scorpion --- transcriptome --- venom toxicity --- brown spider --- venom --- Loxosceles --- toxins --- biotools --- drug targets --- novel therapeutics --- spider toxin --- directed disulfide bond formation --- Nav channel activity --- Nav1.7 --- pain target --- automated patch-clamp --- bee venom --- alternative treatment --- skin --- cutaneous disease --- mechanism --- chemotherapy --- cold allodynia --- mechanical allodynia --- melittin --- neuropathic pain --- oxaliplatin --- natural antibiotics --- piperidine heterocyclic amines --- industrial biotechnology --- LTQ Orbitrap Hybrid Mass Spectrometer --- myrmecology --- venom --- pain --- ants --- wasps --- bees --- Hymenoptera --- envenomation --- toxins --- peptides --- pharmacology --- Dinoponera quadriceps --- Formicidae --- Hymenoptera venom --- proteomics --- venom allergens --- ICK-like toxins --- melittin --- insect immune system --- apoptosis --- heart contractility --- Tenebrio molitor --- bee venom --- bioinformatics --- computational docking --- homology modelling --- ion channel structure --- protein–peptide interactions --- tertiapin --- venom peptides --- virtual screening --- small hive beetle --- solitary wasp --- venom --- antimicrobial peptide --- linear cationic ?-helical peptide --- amphipathic ?-helix structure --- channel-like pore-forming activity --- antimicrobial peptide --- venom --- arthropod --- malaria --- Chagas disease --- human African trypanosomiasis --- leishmaniasis --- toxoplasmosis --- venom peptides --- FMRF-amide --- insect neurotoxin --- protons --- pH regulation --- acid-sensing ion channels --- acid-gated currents --- chronic pain --- ICK peptide --- knottins --- NaV --- spider venom --- voltage-gated sodium channel --- n/a

Plant Proteomic Research 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039210626 9783039210633 Year: Pages: 594 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-063-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Abstract

Advancements in high-throughput “Omics” techniques have revolutionized plant molecular biology research. Proteomics offers one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome, generating a wealth of detailed information regarding the intrinsic mechanisms of plant stress responses. Various proteomic approaches are being exploited extensively for elucidating master regulator proteins which play key roles in stress perception and signaling, and these approaches largely involve gel-based and gel-free techniques, including both label-based and label-free protein quantification. Furthermore, post-translational modifications, subcellular localization, and protein–protein interactions provide deeper insight into protein molecular function. Their diverse applications contribute to the revelation of new insights into plant molecular responses to various biotic and abiotic stressors.

Keywords

Phalaenopsis --- petal --- pollination --- senescence --- 2-DE --- ROS --- Medicago sativa --- leaf cell wall proteome --- cadmium --- quantitative proteomics --- 2D DIGE --- chloroplast --- elevated CO2 --- heat stress --- nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase --- (phospho)-proteomics --- photosynthesis --- protein phosphorylation --- 14-3-3 proteins --- Oryza sativa L. --- starch --- sucrose --- N utilization efficiency --- proteomics --- 2D --- protein phosphatase --- rice isogenic line --- SnRK1 --- 14-3-3 --- lettuce --- bolting --- proteome --- high temperature --- iTRAQ --- proteome profiling --- iTRAQ --- differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) --- drought stress --- physiological responses --- Zea mays L. --- GS3 --- ? subunit --- heterotrimeric G protein --- mass spectrometric analysis --- RGG3 --- rice --- western blotting --- Dn1-1 --- ?-subunit --- heterotrimeric G protein --- mass spectrometry analysis --- RGG4 --- rice --- western blotting --- Clematis terniflora DC. --- polyphenol oxidase --- virus induced gene silencing --- photosynthesis --- glycolysis --- Camellia sinensis --- chlorotic mutation --- chlorophyll deficiency --- weakening of carbon metabolism --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- degradome --- wheat --- cultivar --- protease --- papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) --- subtilase --- metacaspase --- caspase-like --- wheat leaf rust --- Puccinia recondita --- Stagonospora nodorum --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- somatic embryogenesis --- pyruvate biosynthesis --- Zea mays --- chlorophylls --- LC-MS-based proteomics --- pea (Pisum sativum L.) --- proteome functional annotation --- proteome map --- seeds --- seed proteomics --- late blight disease --- potato proteomics --- Phytophthora infestans --- Sarpo Mira --- early and late disease stages --- Simmondsia chinensis --- cold stress --- proteomics --- leaf --- iTRAQ --- Ricinus communis L. --- cold stress --- seed imbibition --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- Morus --- organ --- gel-free/label-free proteomics --- flavonoid --- antioxidant activity --- phosphoproteome --- barley --- seed dormancy --- germination --- imbibition --- after-ripening --- sugarcane --- Sporisorium scitamineum --- smut --- proteomics --- RT-qPCR --- ISR --- holm oak --- Quercus ilex --- 2-DE proteomics --- shotgun proteomics --- non-orthodox seed --- population variability --- stresses responses --- ammonium --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- carbon metabolism --- nitrogen metabolism --- nitrate --- proteomics --- root --- secondary metabolism --- proteomics --- wheat --- silver nanoparticles --- plant pathogenesis responses --- data-independent acquisition --- quantitative proteomics --- Pseudomonas syringae --- sweet potato plants infected by SPFMV --- SPV2 and SPVG --- sweet potato plants non-infected by SPFMV --- SPV2 and SPVG --- co-infection --- transcriptome profiling --- gene ontology --- pathway analysis --- lesion mimic mutant --- leaf spot --- phenylpropanoid biosynthesis --- proteomics --- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) --- rice --- affinity chromatography --- ergosterol --- fungal perception --- innate immunity --- pattern recognition receptors --- plasma membrane --- proteomics --- proteomics --- maize --- plant-derived smoke --- shoot --- Solanum tuberosum --- patatin --- seed storage proteins --- vegetative storage proteins --- tuber phosphoproteome --- targeted two-dimensional electrophoresis --- B. acuminata petals --- MALDI-TOF/TOF --- GC-TOF-MS --- qRT-PCR --- differential proteins --- n/a

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