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Material and Process Design for Lightweight Structures

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ISBN: 9783038979586 / 9783038979593 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-959-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

The use of lightweight structures across several industries has become inevitable in today’s world given the ever-rising demand for improved fuel economy and resource efficiency. In the automotive industry, composites, reinforced plastics, and lightweight materials, such as aluminum and magnesium are being adopted by many OEMs at increasing rates to reduce vehicle mass and develop efficient new lightweight designs. Automotive weight reduction with high-strength steel is also witnessing major ongoing efforts to design novel damage-controlled forming processes for a new generation of efficient, lightweight steel components. Although great progress has been made over the past decades in understanding the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, their extensive use as lightweight solutions is still limited due to numerous challenges that play a key role in cost competitiveness. Hence, significant research efforts are still required to fully understand the anisotropic material behavior, failure mechanisms, and, most importantly, the interplay between industrial processing, microstructure development, and the resulting properties. This Special Issue reprint book features concise reports on the current status in the field. The topics discussed herein include areas of manufacturing and processing technologies of materials for lightweight applications, innovative microstructure and process design concepts, and advanced characterization techniques combined with modeling of material’s behavior.

Urban Overheating - Progress on Mitigation Science and Engineering Applications

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ISBN: 9783038976363 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-637-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The combination of global warming and urban sprawl is the origin of the most hazardous climate change effect detected at urban level: Urban Heat Island, representing the urban overheating respect to the countryside surrounding the city. This book includes 18 papers representing the state of the art of detection, assessment mitigation and adaption to urban overheating. Advanced methods, strategies and technologies are here analyzed including relevant issues as: the role of urban materials and fabrics on urban climate and their potential mitigation, the impact of greenery and vegetation to reduce urban temperatures and improve the thermal comfort, the role the urban geometry in the air temperature rise, the use of satellite and ground data to assess and quantify the urban overheating and develop mitigation solutions, calculation methods and application to predict and assess mitigation scenarios. The outcomes of the book are thus relevant for a wide multidisciplinary audience, including: environmental scientists and engineers, architect and urban planners, policy makers and students.

Keywords

heat health --- meteorological modeling --- urban climate --- urban-climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban heat island index --- Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) --- green area --- built-up area --- air temperature --- measurement --- calculation --- urbanization --- air and surface temperature measurements --- outdoor thermal comfort --- urban heat island --- surface cool island effect --- urban overheating --- urban microclimate --- mitigation strategies --- urban development --- park cool island --- urban cooling --- urban morphology --- micro-climate simulations --- ageing --- emissivity --- measurement --- solar reflectance --- solar reflectance index --- thermal emittance --- urban heat island --- land surface temperature --- “hot spots” --- “cold spots” --- MODIS downscaling --- overheating --- summer heat stress --- urban open space --- shading --- thermal comfort --- Physiologically Equivalent Temperature --- mitigation strategies --- cooling technologies --- cool materials --- WRF-Chem --- urban climate --- air quality --- urban heat island --- surface albedo --- climatic perception --- urban areas --- thermal comfort --- subtropical climate --- cool pavements --- road lighting --- urban heat island --- road surface --- material characterization --- luminance coefficient --- energy savings --- Euramet --- EMPIR 16NRM02 --- building energy performance --- energy simulation --- building retrofit --- multi-objective optimization --- genetic algorithm --- urban overheating --- cost-optimal analysis --- lifecycle analysis --- office buildings --- sustainability --- air temperature --- spectral analysis --- multifractal analysis --- structure functions analysis --- cool roofs --- fine-resolution meteorological modeling --- mobile temperature observations --- urban climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban vegetation --- urbanized WRF --- Weather Research and Forecasting model --- multiple linear regression --- urban heat island --- urban climatology --- urban energy balance --- air temperature --- land cover fraction --- urban morphology --- land surface temperature --- heat stress --- urban heat mitigation --- albedo --- cool facades --- spectral reflectance --- urban remote sensing --- empirical line method --- building scale --- local climate zone --- urban climate --- sky view factor --- morphological indicator --- open science --- GIS --- urban heat island --- urban overheating --- non-constructible parcels --- cool surfaces --- urban vegetation --- ENVI-met --- mitigation measures --- Beirut

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (2)


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CC by-nc-nd (2)


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eng (2)


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2019 (2)