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Feature Papers for Celebrating the Fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Processes

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ISBN: 9783038975250 / 9783038975267 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-526-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 12:02:18
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Processes” is a commonly used term to describe engineered systems such as oil refineries, polymer production plants, and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes that serve a commercial and societal purpose. However, the term can also capture the underlying processes that drive the behavior of complex natural systems such as communities of different organisms in the environment and networked collections of neurons in the human brain. This book provides a representative overview of current challenges and recent advances in the broadly-defined “processes” field. Contributions from leading researchers in the field are conveniently ordered according to five applications domains: chemical systems, biological systems, materials processes, computational methods, and other related topics. The 19 contributions demonstrate the broad range of application domains within the process field, including fluid flow systems, fuel gases, chemical production, polymer manufacturing, food processing, protein synthesis and separation, pharmaceutical production, and water systems. This collection shows that “processes” remain a vibrant area of research, and continued advances in the field can be expected to have a positive impact on our economy, environment, and quality of life.

Polymer Reactor Modeling, Design and Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422549 9783038422556 Year: Pages: X, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 11:47:52
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Polymers range from synthetic plastics, such as polyacrylates, to natural biopolymers, such as proteins and DNA. The large molecular mass of polymers and our ability to manipulate their compositions and molecular structures have allowed for producing synthetic polymers with attractive properties. new polymers with remarkable characteristics are synthesized. Because of the huge production volume of commodity polymers, a little improvement in the operation of commodity-polymer processes can lead to significant economic gains. On the other hand, a little improvement in the quality of specialty polymers can lead to substantial increase in economic profits.

Advances in Statistical Methodologies and Their Application to Real Problems

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ISBN: 9789535131014 9789535131021 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.5772/62963 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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In recent years, statistical techniques and methods for data analysis have advanced significantly in a wide range of research areas. These developments enable researchers to analyze increasingly large datasets with more flexibility and also more accurately estimate and evaluate the phenomena they study. We recognize the value of recent advances in data analysis techniques in many different research fields. However, we also note that awareness of these different statistical and probabilistic approaches may vary, owing to differences in the datasets typical of different research fields. This book provides a cross-disciplinary forum for exploring the variety of new data analysis techniques emerging from different fields.

Computational and Experimental Studies of Acoustic Waves

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ISBN: 9789535137153 9789535137160 9789535139706 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.5772/65135 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book presents recent studies of acoustic wave propagation through different media including the atmosphere, Earth's subsurface, complex dusty plasmas, porous materials, and flexible structures. Mathematical models of the underlying physical phenomena are introduced and studied in detail. With its seven chapters, the book brings together important contributions from renowned international researchers to provide an excellent survey of recent computational and experimental studies of acoustic waves. The first section consists of four chapters that focus on computational studies, while the next section is composed of three chapters that center on experimental studies.

Statistics - Growing Data Sets and Growing Demand for Statistics

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ISBN: 9781789843958 9781789843965 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72139 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Since data grows faster than ever, the role of statistics becomes more and more crucial nowadays, and there is no doubt that statistics will be even more critical in the future. The application of statistics is extensive, and in our daily lives there is almost no human activity where the use of statistics is not needed. In this limited volume, we try to cover as many as different and multidisciplinary fields in statistics as possible and aim to present recent developments and applications of statistical analysis. Therefore, this book is organized into three sections: ""The Role of Statistics on Quantification,"" ""Applications of Statistics on Economics and Development,"" and ""Applications of Statistics on Various Topics.""

Statistical Approaches With Emphasis on Design of Experiments Applied to Chemical Processes

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ISBN: 9789535138778 9789535138785 9789535139874 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/65616 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:12

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Optimized operating conditions for complex systems can be attained by using advanced combinations of numerical and statistical methodologies. One of the most efficient and straightforward solutions relies on the application of statistical methods with an emphasis on the design of experiments (DoEs). Throughout the book, the design and analysis of experiments are conducted involving several approaches, namely, Taguchi, response surface methods, statistical correlations, or even fractional factorial and model-based evolutionary operation designs. This book not only presents a theoretical overview about the different approaches but also contains material that covers the use of the experimental analysis applied to several chemical processes. Some chapters highlight the use of software products to assist experimenters in both the design and analysis stages. It helps graduate students, teachers, researchers, and other professionals who are interested in chemical process optimization and also provides a good basis of theoretical knowledge and valuable insights into the technical details of these tools as well as explains common pitfalls to avoid. The world's leading pharmaceutical companies and local governments are trying to achieve their eradication.

At the Crossroads: Lessons and Challenges in Computational Social Science

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450213 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-021-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The interest of physicists in economic and social questions is not new: for over four decades, we have witnessed the emergence of what is called nowadays “sociophysics” and “econophysics”, vigorous and challenging areas within the wider “Interdisciplinary Physics”. With tools borrowed from Statistical Physics and Complexity, this new area of study have already made important contributions, which in turn have fostered the development of novel theoretical foundations in Social Science and Economics, via mathematical approaches, agent-based modelling and numerical simulations. From these foundations, Computational Social Science has grown to incorporate as well the empirical component —aided by the recent data deluge from the Web 2.0 and 3.0—, closing in this way the experiment-theory cycle in the best tradition of Physics.

Foundations of Theoretical Approaches in Systems Biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456833 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-683-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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If biology in the 20th century was characterized by an explosion of new technologies and experimental methods, that of the 21st has seen an equally exuberant proliferation of mathematical and computational methods that attempt to systematize and explain the abundance of available data. As we live through the consolidation of a new paradigm where experimental data goes hand in hand with computational analysis, we contemplate the challenge of fusing these two aspects of the new biology into a consistent theoretical framework. Whether systems biology will survive as a field or be washed away by the tides of future fads will ultimately depend on its success to achieve this type of synthesis. The famous quote attributed to Kurt Lewin comes to mind: "there is nothing more practical than a good theory". This book presents a wide assortment of articles on systems biology in an attempt to capture the variety of current methods in systems biology and show how they can help to find answers to the challenges of modern biology.

Smoothing, Filtering and Prediction - Estimating The Past, Present and Future

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ISBN: 9789533077529 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.5772/2706 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book describes the classical smoothing, filtering and prediction techniques together with some more recently developed embellishments for improving performance within applications. It aims to present the subject in an accessible way, so that it can serve as a practical guide for undergraduates and newcomers to the field. The material is organised as a ten-lecture course. The foundations are laid in Chapters 1 and 2, which explain minimum-mean-square-error solution construction and asymptotic behaviour. Chapters 3 and 4 introduce continuous-time and discrete-time minimum-variance filtering. Generalisations for missing data, deterministic inputs, correlated noises, direct feedthrough terms, output estimation and equalisation are described. Chapter 5 simplifies the minimum-variance filtering results for steady-state problems. Observability, Riccati equation solution convergence, asymptotic stability and Wiener filter equivalence are discussed. Chapters 6 and 7 cover the subject of continuous-time and discrete-time smoothing. The main fixed-lag, fixed-point and fixed-interval smoother results are derived. It is shown that the minimum-variance fixed-interval smoother attains the best performance. Chapter 8 attends to parameter estimation. As the above-mentioned approaches all rely on knowledge of the underlying model parameters, maximum-likelihood techniques within expectation-maximisation algorithms for joint state and parameter estimation are described. Chapter 9 is concerned with robust techniques that accommodate uncertainties within problem specifications. An extra term within Riccati equations enables designers to trade-off average error and peak error performance. Chapter 10 rounds off the course by applying the afore-mentioned linear techniques to nonlinear estimation problems. It is demonstrated that step-wise linearisations can be used within predictors, filters and smoothers, albeit by forsaking optimal performance guarantees.

Fourier Transform - Materials Analysis

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ISBN: 9789535105947 9789535142935 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.5772/2659 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The field of material analysis has seen explosive growth during the past decades. Almost all the textbooks on materials analysis have a section devoted to the Fourier transform theory. For this reason, the book focuses on the material analysis based on Fourier transform theory. The book chapters are related to FTIR and the other methods used for analyzing different types of materials. It is hoped that this book will provide the background, reference and incentive to encourage further research and results in this area as well as provide tools for practical applications. It provides an applications-oriented approach to materials analysis written primarily for physicist, Chemists, Agriculturalists, Electrical Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Signal Processing Engineers, and the Academic Researchers and for the Graduate Students who will also find it useful as a reference for their research activities.

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