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Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J‑PARC)

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ISBN: 9783038974833 / 9783038974840 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-484-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 09:44:25
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The Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is a landmark large user-facility producing neutron and muon beams. Those beams feed over 20 beamlines hosting world-class instruments for the investigation of matter across the disciplines of materials science, solid state physics and chemistry, biological and life sciences, geology, engineering, and their wider applications. Neutron and muons can probe matter in very peculiar ways. They are sensitive to magnetism and hydrogen atoms, can penetrate materials deeply or probe surfaces, and allow one to investigate the fundamental dynamics of the materials. In the past three to four decades, neutron scattering has largely contributed to the development of modern technology, such as computers, mobile phone technology, electo-chemistry, the transportation industry, and the pharmaceutic industry. MLF is a world leader in such characterization technology and serves yearly to about 700 research experiments conducted from users of 34 countries around the world. The present book describes technical details of the proton accelerator, the neutron spallation source, the muon facility, and all the beamlines with engineering realization, specifications, and relevant examples.

Della mente sovrana del mondo

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Book Series: I Quaderni del Lab ISBN: 9788890871207 Year: Pages: 229 Language: Italian
Publisher: Istituto per la storia del pensiero filosofico e scientifico moderno - National Research Council
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2014-09-29 21:07:23
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Tommaso Rossi (1673-1743), Abbot of Montefusco in the Kingdom of Naples, devoted his life to metaphysical and theological studies and had epistolary relations with Giambattista Vico. In his philosophical works "Dell’animo dell’uomo" and "Della mente sovrana del mondo", he faced the problem of human nature and of the nature of God’s mind, crossing some key-questions in the philosophy of modern age, such as the mind-body relation, the possibility for the human knowledge to know the natural and divine things, and the definition of the matter. Tommaso Rossi’s thought, hostile to all forms of atheism and materialism, took part in the philosophical debate which, from Locke to Descartes and Spinoza, tried to define the new field and the new role of natural science. "Della mente sovrana del mondo" (1743), whose third part is dedicated to the exam of Spinoza’s philosophical system, is an important document, not only of the reception of Spinoza, but also of the philosophical redefinition for a cosmological and gnoseological order where the human wit plays a very important role.

Wiring Principles of Cerebral Cortex

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196920 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-692-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network. Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units of cortex, are interconnected through a massive yet highly organized pattern of axonal and dendritic wiring. This wiring enables both near and distant cells to coordinate their responses and generate a rich variety of cognitions and behaviours. When the wiring is damaged through disease or trauma it may reorganize but this may lead to characteristic pathological behaviours. While there have been significant advances in mapping cortical connectivity, the organizing principles and function of this connectivity are not well understood. On the one hand, there appears to be general design constraints governing cortical wiring, as first recognised by Rámon y Cajal's in his laws of conduction, material, and volume conservation. Yet on the other hand, particular patterns of cortical wiring exist to serve specific functions. There is a wide gap in understanding how the response and connectivity properties of a single neuron contribute to emergent network functions such as in detecting perceptually relevant features. Unravelling this intimate causal relationship represents one of the major challenges in neuroscience. This Research Topic will examine progress in understanding cortical wiring principles. This Research Topic aims to draw together recent advances in methods and understanding as well as recent challenges to existing ideas about how cerebral cortex is wired. This is particularly timely because new automated techniques may soon yield huge datasets in need of explanation. Recent studies have, for instance, empirically evaluated Rámon y Cajal's conservation laws for cerebral cortex, while others have shown some unexpected connectivity features that may refine the traditional view of how corticocortical connections are organised with regard to functional representations of auditory, somatosensory and visual cortices. Understanding these data will help improve the fidelity of neural models of cerebral cortical function and take into account the diversity of connections at both micro- and mesoscopic scales not seen at such a depth before.

Linking Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450817 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-081-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Geography --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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A substantial increase in the number of studies using the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a proxy for its chemical properties in estuaries and the coastal and open ocean has occurred during the last decade. We are making progress on finding the actual chemical compounds or phenomena responsible for DOM’s optical properties. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, in particular, has made important progress in making the key connections between optics and chemistry. But serious questions remain and the last major special issue on DOM optics and chemistry occurred nearly 10 years ago. Controversies remain from the non-specific optical properties of DOM that are not linked to discrete sources, and sometimes provide conflicting information. The use of optics, which is relatively easier to employ in synoptic and high resolution sampling to determine chemistry, is a critical connection to make and can lead to major advances in our understanding of organic matter cycling in all aquatic ecosystems. The contentions and controversies raised by our poor understanding of the linkages between optics and chemistry of DOM are bottlenecks that need to be addressed and overcome.

Virus Discovery by Metagenomics: The (Im)possibilities

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453085 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-308-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Since the late 1800s, the discovery of new viruses was a gradual process. Viruses were described one by one using a suite of techniques such as (electron) microscopy and viral culture. Investigators were usually interested in a disease state within an organism, and expeditions in viral ecology were rare. The advent of metagenomics using high-throughput sequencing has revolutionized not only the rate of virus discovery, but also the nature of the discoveries. For example, the viral ecology and etiology of many human diseases are being characterized, non-pathogenic viral commensals are ubiquitous, and the description of environmental viromes is making progress. This Frontiers in Virology Research Topic showcases how metagenomic and bioinformatic approaches have been combined to discover, classify and characterize novel viruses.

Science with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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ISBN: 9789813270091 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.1142/10986 Language: ENG
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 03:35:14
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This book summarizes the science to be carried out by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory that will be constructed over the next six to eight years. The major scientific themes, as well as core program of key science projects, have been developed by the CTA Consortium, a collaboration of scientists from many institutions worldwide.CTA will be the major facility in high-energy and very high-energy photon astronomy over the next decade and beyond. CTA will have capabilities well beyond past and present observatories. Thus, CTA's science program is expected to be rich and broad and will complement other major multiwavelength and multimessenger facilities. This book is intended to be the primary resource for the science case for CTA and it thus will be of great interest to the broader physics and astronomy communities. The electronic version (e-book) is available in open access.

Nanowires Science and Technology

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ISBN: 9789537619893 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.5772/3454 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book describes nanowires fabrication and their potential applications, both as standing alone or complementing carbon nanotubes and polymers. Understanding the design and working principles of nanowires described here, requires a multidisciplinary background of physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical and optoelectronics engineering, bioengineering, etc. This book is organized in eighteen chapters. In the first chapters, some considerations concerning the preparation of metallic and semiconductor nanowires are presented. Then, combinations of nanowires and carbon nanotubes are described and their properties connected with possible applications. After that, some polymer nanowires single or complementing metallic nanowires are reported. A new family of nanowires, the photoferroelectric ones, is presented in connection with their possible applications in non-volatile memory devices. Finally, some applications of nanowires in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, photoluminescence, light sensing and field-effect transistors are described. The book offers new insights, solutions and ideas for the design of efficient nanowires and applications. While not pretending to be comprehensive, its wide coverage might be appropriate not only for researchers but also for experienced technical professionals.

Silver Nanoparticles

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ISBN: 9789533070285 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.5772/186 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Nanotechnology will be soon required in most engineering and science curricula. It cannot be questioned that cutting-edge applications based on nanoscience are having a considerable impact in nearly all fields of research, from basic to more problem-solving scientific enterprises. In this sense, books like “Silver Nanoparticles” aim at filling the gaps for comprehensive information to help both newcomers and experts, in a particular fast-growing area of research. Besides, one of the key features of this book is that it could serve both academia and industry. “Silver nanoparticles” is a collection of eighteen chapters written by experts in their respective fields. These reviews are representative of the current research areas within silver nanoparticle nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Carbon Nanotubes

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ISBN: 9789533070544 Year: Pages: 782 DOI: 10.5772/3451 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book has been outlined as follows: A review on the literature and increasing research interests in the field of carbon nanotubes. Fabrication techniques followed by an analysis on the physical properties of carbon nanotubes. The device physics of implemented carbon nanotubes applications along with proposed models in an effort to describe their behavior in circuits and interconnects. And ultimately, the book pursues a significant amount of work in applications of carbon nanotubes in sensors, nanoparticles and nanostructures, and biotechnology. Readers of this book should have a strong background on physical electronics and semiconductor device physics. Philanthropists and readers with strong background in quantum transport physics and semiconductors materials could definitely benefit from the results presented in the chapters of this book. Especially, those with research interests in the areas of nanoparticles and nanotechnology.

Nanowires

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ISBN: 9789537619794 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.5772/3457 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This volume is intended to orient the reader in the fast developing field of semiconductor nanowires, by providing a series of self-contained monographs focusing on various nanowire-related topics. Each monograph serves as a short review of previous results in the literature and description of methods used in the field, as well as a summary of the authors recent achievements on the subject. Each report provides a brief sketch of the historical background behind, the physical and/or chemical principles underlying a specific nanowire fabrication/characterization technique, or the experimental/theoretical methods used to study a given nanowire property or device. Despite the diverse topics covered, the volume does appear as a unit. The writing is generally clear and precise, and the numerous illustrations provide an easier understanding of the phenomena described. The volume contains 20 Chapters covering altogether many (although not all) semiconductors of technological interest, starting with the IV-IV group compounds (SiC and SiGe), carrying on with the binary and ternary compounds of the III-V (GaAs, AlGaAs, GaSb, InAs, GaP, InP, and GaN) and II-VI (HgTe, HgCdTe) families, the metal oxides (CuO, ZnO, ZnCoO, tungsten oxide, and PbTiO3), and finishing with Bi (a semimetal).

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