Search results: Found 7

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
What we learn and when we learn it: sensitive periods in development

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193271 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-327-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The impact of training or experience is not the same at all points in development. Children who receive music lessons, or learn a second language before age 7-8 are more proficient as adults. Early exposure to drugs or trauma makes people more likely to become addicted or depressed later life. Rat pups exposed to specific frequencies from 9-13 days post-partum show expanded cortical representations of these frequencies. Young birds must hear and copy their native song within 1-2 months of birth or they may never learn it at all. These are examples of sensitive periods: developmental windows where maturation and specific experience interact to produce differential long-term effects on the brain and behavior. While still controversial, evidence for the existence of sensitive periods has grown, as has our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of brain plasticity. Behavioral evidence from studies of language, psychopathology or vision in humans has been complemented by evidence elucidating molecular, gene and hormonal mechanisms in animals. It has been proposed that sensitive periods can be both opened and closed by specific experience, and that there are multiple, overlapping sensitive periods that occur through-out development as functions come on line. It is also likely that experience-dependent behavioral or brain plasticity accrued during one sensitive period can serve as a scaffold on which later experience and plasticity can build. Based on current knowledge, there are a number of broad questions and challenges to be addressed in this domain, these include: generating new information about the neurobiological mediators of structural and functional changes; proposing models of brain development that will better predict when sensitive periods should occur and what functions are implicated; investigation of the interaction between experience during a sensitive period and pre-existing individual differences; and the relationship between experience during a sensitive period and on-going experience. The goal of this Research Topic is to bring together scientists in different fields whose work addresses these issues, including animal and human developmental neuroscience, language and cognitive development, education, developmental psychopathology and sensory neuroscience.

Brain Development and the Attention Spectrum

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194827 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-482-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Early-onset and enduring developmental deficits in attention, especially if combined with increased hyperactivity, and impulsivity, may result in constant impairments in multiple domains of personal life. The full spectrum of symptoms is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with a comparable level of developmental age known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is considered one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders and of childhood, and among the most prevalent chronic health conditions.Given the wide heterogeneity and complex manifestations of the disorder, there is an importance in a developmental perspective that views ADHD as a multi-factorial disorder with multiple, causal processes, and pathways. The symptoms of ADHD should be cast, not as static or fixed neurobehavioral deficits, but rather in terms of underlying developmental processes.Even experienced professional might minimize the prevalence of a disorder among certain groups of patients. Therefore, the existence of attention disorders might become ""transparent"" for both the patient and the professional. This might lead to a non-accurate diagnosis, harm the treatment aspects and has potential non beneficial prognostic aspects.The developmental approach can provide predictions as to how characteristics associated with attention develop over time and how multiple risk and protective factors transact to impact it's development, as well as the development of a broad range of associated co-morbid features.Among children with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, children who were born premature, born with low birth weight, as well as among those who suffer from chronic disorders (such as epilepsy, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or asthma), as well as among otherwise healthy preschoolers - the assessment of attention performance might be very challenging. In this research topic, we explore the latest cutting edge research on the biological and neural pathways as well as on psychosocial and behavioral correlates of brain development and attention spectrum. In doing so we aim to highlight: what is currently known regarding this new conceptualization of attention as a spectrum; the mechanisms underlying this spectrum; and where this field is headed in terms of developing our understanding of the link between brain development and attention performance.

Keywords

ADHD --- Attention --- Brain --- autism --- Child --- Delay --- development --- fetal --- maturation --- spectrum --- visual

Enamel Research: Mechanisms and Characterization

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450190 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-019-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The rodent incisor is a good model system to study the molecular and cellular events that are involved in enamel biomineralization. Incisors in rodents continuously erupt during their lifespan, thus allowing the study of all stages of enamel synthesis, deposition, mineralization and maturation in the same tissue section. This model system has provided invaluable insight into the specifics of enamel formation as a basis to understand human pathologies such as amelogenesis imperfect. Furthermore, the rodent incisor allows exploration and understanding of some of the most fundamental mechanisms that govern biomineralization. Enamel is the most mineralized, hardest tissue in the body. It is formed within a unique organic matrix that, unlike other hard tissues such as bone and dentin, does not contain collagen. The formation of enamel can be divided into two main stages: the secretory and maturation stage. During the secretory stage, a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals is formed under the influence of structural matrix proteins such as amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. During the maturation stage, the organic matrix is removed and hydroxyapatite crystals expand to ultimately yield a functional hard structure consisting of over 96% mineral. Research efforts over the past decades have mainly focused on the secretory stage, providing novel insights into the concept of biomineralization. However, the events that occur during the maturation stage have not been yet explored in detail, likely because the physiological roles of the enamel-forming ameloblasts are more diverse and complex at this stage. Mature ameloblasts are involved in the regulation of calcium transport in large amounts, phosphate and protein fragments in and out of the maturing enamel and provide regulatory mechanisms for the control of the pH. In recent years, increased efforts have been dedicated towards defining the molecular events during enamel maturation. The development of an ever-increasing number of transgenic animal models has clearly demonstrated the essential roles of matrix and non-matrix proteins during enamel formation. Multiple traditional and modern analytical techniques are applied for the characterization of enamel in these animals. The need for this Research Topic therefore stems from new information that has been generated on molecular events during the enamel maturation stage and the development and application of highly advanced analytical techniques to characterize dental enamel. The benefits and limitations of these techniques need to be reviewed and their application standardized for valid comparative studies.

Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities

Author:
ISBN: 9783038978862 9783038978879 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-887-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Sports Medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

I made the important decision to manage a Special Issue, because I believe it to be extremely important to focus on children’s and adolescents’ physiological and psychological development. I aimed to collect research that investigates the role of physical activity and sport on physical and mental well-being, with a particular focus on practical implications, innovation, tools, and technique. This Special Issue, “Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities” addresses pediatric exercise science as a key scientific discipline able to help future generations live longer and better. It is already clear that sedentariness and a low level of muscular strength and power significantly affects cognitive functions and daily relations, but it is interesting to understand the key determinants and how we can help practitioners better manage these concerns in their patients. Authors were invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews.

Improving Practice and Performance in Basketball

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216949 9783039216956 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-695-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Despite being one of the most popular sports worldwide, basketball has received limited research attention compared to other team sports. Establishing a strong evidence base with high-quality and impactful research is essential in enhancing decision-making processes to optimize player performance for basketball professionals. Consequently, the book entitled Improving Performance and Practice in Basketball provides a collection of novel research studies to increase the available evidence on various topics with strong translation to practice in basketball. The book includes work by 40 researchers from 16 institutions or professional organizations from 9 countries. In keeping with notable topics in basketball research, the book contains 2 reviews focused on monitoring strategies to detect player fatigue and considerations for travel in National Basketball Association players. In addition, 8 applied studies are also included in the book, focused on workload monitoring, game-related statistics, and the measurement of physical and skill attributes in basketball players. This book also has a strong focus on increasing the evidence available for female basketball players, who have traditionally been under-represented in the literature. The outcomes generated from this book should provide new insights to inform practice in many areas for professionals working in various roles with basketball teams.

Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212552 9783039212569 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-256-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Rapid establishment of seedlings in forest regeneration or afforestation sites after planting is a prerequisite for a successful reforestation. Seedling survival after outplanting can be improved by using high-quality seedling material. Seedling quality consists of several features, such as genetic source, morphological properties, nutritional status, stress resistance, and vitality of the seedlings. Field performance of the seedlings is a complex process which can be affected by many nursery and silvicultural practices. Nursery cultural practices strongly affect seedling quality, which is generally at its highest level during the growth period at the nursery. Afterwards, when the seedlings are transported from the nursery to the planting site (including seedling storage, handling, shipping, and planting practices), the quality of seedlings can only remain the same or decline. To ensure successful regeneration, it is important to produce seedlings that retain their high quality until planting, and to establish them quickly in the forest regeneration site.

MaxEnt 2019—Proceedings, 2019, MaxEnt 2019The 39th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039284764 9783039284771 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-477-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Proceedings book presents papers from the 39th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, MaxEnt 2019. The workshop took place at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching near Munich, Germany, from 30 June to 5 July 2019, and invited contributions on all aspects of probabilistic inference, including novel techniques, applications, and work that sheds new light on the foundations of inference. Addressed are inverse and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and problems arising from a large variety of applications, such as earth science, astrophysics, material and plasma science, imaging in geophysics and medicine, nondestructive testing, density estimation, remote sensing, Gaussian process (GP) regression, optimal experimental design, data assimilation, and data mining.

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Narrow your search