Search results: Found 26

Listing 1 - 10 of 26 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Autism: The Movement Perspective

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195091 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-509-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is portrayed as cognitive and social disorders. Undoubtedly, impairments in communication and restricted-repetitive behaviors that now define the disorders have a profound impact on social interactions. But can we go beyond the descriptive, observational nature of this definition and objectively measure that amalgamate of motions and sensations that we call behavior?In this Research Topic we bring movement and its sensation to the forefront of autism research, diagnosis, and treatment. We gather researchers across disciplines with the unifying goal of recognizing movement and sensory disturbances as core symptoms of the disorder. We also hear confirmation from the perspective of autism self-advocates and parents. Those important sources of evidence along with the research presented in this topic demonstrate without a doubt that profound movement and sensory differences do exist in ASD and that they are quantifiable.The work presented in this Research Topic shows us that quantifiable differences in movements have a better chance than current observational techniques to help us uncover subtle solutions that the nervous system with autism has already spontaneously self-discovered and utilized in daily living. Where the naked eye would miss the unique subtleties that help each individual cope, instrumentation and fine kinematic analyses of motions help us uncover inherent capacities and predispositions of the person with autism. The work presented in this topic helps us better articulate through the voices of parents and self-advocates those sensory motor differences that current inventories could not possibly uncover. These differences are seldom perceived as they take place at timescales and frequencies that fall largely beneath our conscious awareness. To the person in the spectrum living with this disorder and to the caregiver creating accommodations to help the affected loved one, these subtleties are very familiar though. Indeed they are often used in clever ways to facilitate daily routines. We have waited much too long in science to listen to the very people that we are trying to define, understand and help.Being autism a social problem by definition, it is remarkable that not a single diagnosis inventory measures the dyadic social interaction that takes place between the examiner and the examinees. Indeed we have conceived the autistic person within a social context where we are incapable - by definition - of accepting those differences. The burden is rather placed on the affected person to whom much too often we refer to in the third person as “non-verbal, without intentionality, without empathy or emotions, without a theory of mind”, among other purely psychological guesses. It is then too easy and shockingly allowed to “reshape” that person, to mold that person to better conform to our social expectations and to extinguish “behaviors” that are socially unacceptable, even through the use of aversive punishing reinforcement techniques if need be. And yet none of those techniques have had a single shred of objective scientific evidence of their effectiveness. We have not objectively measured once, nor have we physiologically characterized once any of those perceived features that we so often use to observationally define what we may think the autistic phenotype may be. We have not properly quantified, beyond paper-and-pencil methods, the effectiveness of interventions in autism.

Sanktionierung und Rückfälligkeit von Heranwachsenden

Author:
ISBN: 101787520191175 9783863953966 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-03 11:21:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Two different sanctioning systems are applicable to young adult offenders in Germany: juvenile criminal law and adult criminal law. The present study provides an overview of the various sanctions applied to these adolescents aged between 18 and 20 and of their reconvictions during an observation period. Based on data from the German Federal Central Criminal Register (Bundeszentral- und Erziehungsregister), the study covers all convictions and juvenile diversional measures in a specific reference year. This data set allows a detailed examination of the applied sanctions and measures, the proportion of juvenile and adult criminal law, and the reconviction rate differentiated by gender, age, offence and other variables. The empirical analysis also addresses regional differences in sanctioning and examines, if juvenile criminal law is “milder” and/or more effective than adult criminal law – questions that play an essential role in the debate on suitable sanctions for young adults.

Digital Identity: an emergent legal concept

Author:
ISBN: 9780980723007 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.1017/UPO9780980723007 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-11 07:57:22
License: University of Adelaide Press

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This is the first full-length study of digital identity in a transactional context, from a legal perspective. Clare Sullivan's analysis reveals the emergence of a distinct, new legal concept of identity. This concept is particularly clear under a national identity scheme such as the United Kingdom and Indian schemes. However, its emergence is evident even in jurisdictions, like Australia, which do not have a formal national identity scheme. Much of the analysis can also be extrapolated to proprietary schemes such as those run by banks and other businesses.&#xD;&#xD;An individual’s digital identity which is used for transactional purposes has crucial functions which give it legal personality. The author argues that an individual’s digital identity also has the characteristics of property which can, and should, be legally protected. Identity theft is defined using the emergent concept and the study shows that digital identity is property which capable of actually being stolen and criminally damaged.&#xD;&#xD;The study examines the emergence of attendant legal rights and duties including a new right to digital identity and its legal protection. Dr Sullivan argues that an individual has the right to an accurate, functional digital identity and shows that this right exists in addition to the right to privacy.&#xD;&#xD;Dr Sullivan maintains that, considering the essentially public nature of identity, the right to identity provides better, and more appropriate, protection than is afforded by the right to privacy. She asserts that the importance of the right to identity in this context has been obscured by the focus on privacy in international legal scholarship and jurisprudence.&#xD;&#xD;The functions and legal nature of digital identity are analysed using real examples which highlight the implications for individuals, businesses and government. The findings have the potential to fundamentally change the way digital identity is legally and commercially regarded.

Subsidiaritätsklauseln im Strafverfahren

Author:
Book Series: Göttinger Studien zu den Kriminalwissenschaften ISBN: 9783863950712 Year: Pages: 249 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-17 04:22:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Die Arbeit befasst sich mit dem bislang sehr wenig untersuchten System von Subsidiaritätsklauseln in strafprozessualen Eingriffsermächtigungen. Sie schildert die sukzessive Entstehung des Systems, nimmt eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme vor und geht dem Verhältnis der Subsidiaritätsklauseln zum Grundsatz der Verhältnismäßigkeit nach. Die Arbeit untersucht weiterhin den Bedeutungsgehalt der verschiedenen Subsidiaritätsklauseln sowie ihre Kollision bei Anwendung mehrerer subsidiärer Ermittlungsmaßnahmen. Am Ende fragt die Arbeit nach der Konsistenz des Systems und setzt sich in den Schlussfolgerungen mit der Praktikabilität und der Frage, ob das System seinem Anspruch gerecht geworden ist, kritisch auseinander.

Towards an Integrated Approach to Measurement, Analysis and Modeling of Cortical Networks

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197620 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-762-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The amount of data being produced by neuroscientists is increasing rapidly, driven by advances in neuroimaging and recording techniques spanning multiple scales of resolution. The availability of such data poses significant challenges for their processing and interpretation. To gain a deeper understanding of the surrounding issues, the Editors of this e-Book reached out to an interdisciplinary community, and formed the Cortical Networks Working Group. The genesis of this e-Book thus began with this Working Group through support from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis in the USA. The Group consisted of scientists from neuroscience, physics, psychology and computer science, and meetings were held in person (a detailed list of the group members is presented in the Editorial that follows). At the time we started, in 2010, the term “big data” was hardly in existence, though the volume of data we were handling would certainly have qualified. Furthermore, there was significant interest in harnessing the power of supercomputers to perform large scale neuronal simulations, and in creating specialized hardware to mimic neural function. We realized that the various disciplines represented in our Group could and should work together to accelerate progress in Neuroscience. We searched for common threads that could define the foundation for an integrated approach to solve important problems in the field. We adopted a network-centric perspective to address these challenges, as the data are derived from structures that are themselves network-like. We proposed three inter-twined threads, consisting of measurement of neural activity, analysis of network structures deduced from this activity, and modeling of network function, leading to theoretical insights. This approach formed the foundation of our initial call for papers. When we issued the call for papers, we were not sure how many papers would fall into each of these threads. We were pleased that we found significant interest in each thread, and the number of submissions exceeded our expectations. This is an indication that the field of neuroscience is ripe for the type of integration and interchange that we had anticipated. We first published a special topics issue after we received a sufficient number of submissions. This is now being converted to an e-book to strengthen the coherence of its contributions. One of the strong themes emerging in this e-book is that network-based measures capture better the dynamics of brain processes, and provide features with greater discriminative power than point-based measures. Another theme is the importance of network oscillations and synchrony. Current research is shedding light on the principles that govern the establishment and maintenance of network oscillation states. These principles could explain why there is impaired synchronization between different brain areas in schizophrenics and Parkinson’s patients. Such research could ultimately provide the foundation for an understanding of other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. The chapters in this book cover these three main threads related to cortical networks. Some authors have combined two or more threads within a single chapter. We expect the availability of related work appearing in a single e-book to help our readers see the connection between different research efforts, and spur further insights and research.

Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change

Author:
ISBN: 9783038427254 9783038427261 Year: Pages: 242 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 09:48:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Sustainability covers environmental, social and economic dimensions, and requires a multi-disciplinary approach in order to examine, explore and critically engage with issues and advances in its related areas. As we are aware, climate change is a certainty and it affects many economic sectors, including agriculture, particularly production of crop and livestock enterprises. Vast regional differences in these impacts are expected for various parts of the world, culminating in changes in trade patterns, and perhaps eventually even threatening the food security in certain parts of the world. Agricultural sustainability may be especially threatened by climate extremes, such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. However, not all changes induced by climate change would be negative; some may even be positive. Undoubtedly, there would be winners and losers within a nation, as well as among countries. Achieving sustainability would require changes in the way we manage agriculture. Equally important in this discourse is to find solutions to achieve sustainability in the wake of climate change, one of the major threats to sustainability. This book is devoted to various aspect of sustainable agriculture and climate change and their interplay.

Basic and applied research on deception and its detection

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192540 Year: Pages: 249 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-254-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Deception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social interactions and has attracted a significant amount of research during the last decades. The majority of studies in this field focused on how deception modulates behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses and whether these changes can be used to validly identify lies. Especially the latter question, which historically gave rise to the development of psychophysiological "lie detection" techniques, has been driving research on deception and its detection until today. The detection of deception and concealed information in forensic examinations currently constitutes one of the most frequent applications of psychophysiological methods in the field. With the increasing use of such methods, the techniques for detecting deception have been controversially discussed in the scientific community. It has been proposed to shift from the original idea of detecting deception per se to a more indirect approach that allows for determining whether a suspect has specific knowledge of crime-related details. This so-called Concealed Information Test is strongly linked to basic psychological concepts concerning memory, attention, orienting, and response monitoring. Although research in this field has intensified with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques such as PET and fMRI in the last decade, basic questions on the psychological mechanisms underlying modulatory effects of deception and information concealment on behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses are still poorly understood. This Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers in experimental psychology, psychophysiology, and neuroscience focusing on the understanding of the broad concept of deception including the detection of concealed information, with respect to basic research questions as well as applied issues. This Research Topic is mainly composed of originalresearch articles but reviews and papers elaborating on novel methodological approaches have also been included. Experimental methods include, but are not limited to, behavioral, autonomic, electroencephalographic or brain imaging techniques that allow for revealing relevant facets of deception on a multimodal level. While this Research Topic primarily includes laboratory work, relevant issues for the field use of such methods are also discussed.

Parenthood From Biology to Relation. Prevention, Assessment and Interventions for Developmental and Clinical Issues

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456642 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-664-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Parenthood represents a fundamental construct that identifies the quality of early adult-infant interactions. In both short and long period, relationships, as primary interactional experiences, have an essential role in influencing individual’s adjustment and psychopathology development during in lifetime. In this scenario, the most important areas of interest and innovation are (a) parents’ representation of themselves, both in relation to the child and to their care-giving role; (b) the quality of couple relationship, in terms of both conjugal and co-parental bounds, and its influence on the quality of early mother-father-child interactions; (c) the early models of caregiver-baby interaction; (d) the recent approach to the “maternal brain”, that represents the contribution coming from neurosciences, linked to the adult’s activation and cerebral functioning processes, in association with the parental role. These data are a starting point for the individuation of functioning mechanisms and developmental trajectories of parenting in groups of adults and babies, belonging to normative populations. At the same time, those studies may provide an important introduction to the detection of critical and/or dysfunctional aspects in populations of babies and adults at risk (e.g. preterm babies, adopted children, etc.) or in adults’ clinical group (e.g. a depressed parents, addicted parents, etc.) or in children with one or more impaired characteristic (e.g. children with organic diseases, with autistic disorders, etc.).. The present Research Topic puts the attention on these themes, particularly, considering the possible aftermaths that empirical research may have on planning and realizing interventional models to support the parental functioning. We will consider papers focused on the individuation of methods of observation and assessment, which allow to plan and realize prevention programs and/or interventions, primarily focused on parental support, both in the early stadium of the child’s development and in the long-term period. Thus, the focus is both on the prevention and sustenance sphere and, also, on specific manners of taking on the therapeutic responsibility of the adult-infant relationship.

Chemical, Physical and Mineralogical Properties of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in the Megacity Beijing

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher mineralogische und geochemische Hefte : Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Mineralogie und Geochemie ISSN: 16182677 ISBN: 9783866448278 Year: Volume: 38 Pages: XIII, 263 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000026820 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The scope of this work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol pollution in the megacity Beijing. The focus lies on the interaction of anthropogenic and geogenic aerosol particles, their spatio-temporal variation, the most important pollution sources as well as the impact of particulate aerosols on human health and the environment. Furthermore, the bioavailable fraction of metal concentrations and the effect of mitigation measures during the 2008 Olympic Games were evaluated.

Österreichischer Sachstandsbericht Klimawandel 2014

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783700176992 Year: Pages: 1097 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574829 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 221
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:50
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The AAR14 is the first Assessment Report on climate Change in Austria assessing the Impact of climate change and the Needs and possibilities of mitigation and Adaptation. This three-volume Report, developed through a multiple peer-Review process including stakeholder participation, presents a coherent assessment of scientific knowledge about climate and makes it accessible for both decision-makers and the General public. Approximately 240 scientists from 50 institutions have participated in this national Assessment Report

Listing 1 - 10 of 26 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by