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Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems for future Transport 2019

ISBN: 9780367903565 Year: Pages: 348 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-11 11:21:02
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Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems for Future Transport 2019 provides a forum for IC engine, fuels and powertrain experts, and looks closely at developments in powertrain technology required to meet the demands of the low carbon economy and global competition in all sectors of the transportation, off-highway and stationary power industries.

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Civil --- mechanical --- automative

Mechanical Signaling in Plants: From Perception to Consequences for Growth and Morphogenesis (Thigmomorphogenesis) and Ecological Significance

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450749 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-074-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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During the 1970s, renewed interest in plant mechanical signaling led to the discovery that plants subjected to mechanical stimulation develop shorter and thicker axes than undisturbed plants, a syndrome called thigmomorphogenesis. Currently, mechanosensing is being intensively studied because of its involvement in many physiological processes in plants and particularly in the control of plant morphogenesis. From an ecological point of view, the shaping of plant architecture has to be precisely organized in space to ensure light capture as well as mechanical stability. In natural environments terrestrial plants are subjected to mechanical stimulation mainly due to wind, but also due to precipitation, while aquatic and marine plants are subjected to current and wave energy. Plants acclimate to mechanically challenging environments by sensing mechanical stimulations and modifying their growth in length and diameter and their tissue properties to reduce potential for buckling or breakage. From a morphogenetic point of view, both external and internal mechanical cues play an important role in the control of cell division and meristem development likely by modulating microtubule orientation. How mechanical stimulations are being sensed by plants is an area of intense research. Different types of mechanosensors have been discovered or proposed, including ion channels gated by membrane tension (stretch activation) and plasma membrane receptor-like kinases that monitor the cell wall deformations. Electrophysiologists have measured the conductances of some stretch-activated channels and have showed that SAC of different structures can exhibit different conductances. The role of these differences in conductance has not yet been established. Once a mechanical stimulus has been perceived, it must be converted into a biological signal that can lead to variations of plant phenotype. Calcium has been shown to function as an early second messenger, tightly linked with changes in cytosolic and apoplastic pH. Transcriptional analyses of the effect of mechanical stimulation have revealed a considerable number of differentially expressed genes, some of which appear to be specific to mechanical signal transduction. These genes can thus serve as markers of mechanosensing, for example, in studies attempting to define signalling threshold, or variations of mechanosensitivity (accommodation). Quantitative biomechanical studies have lead to a model of mechanoperception which links mechanical state and plant responses, and provides an integrative tool to study the regulation of mechanosensing. This model includes parameters (sensitivity and threshold) that can be estimated experimentally. It has also been shown that plants are desensitized when exposed to multiple mechanical signals as a function of their mechanical history. Finally, mechanosensing is also involved in osmoregulation or cell expansion. The links between these different processes involving mechanical signalling need further investigation. This frontier research topic provides an overview of the different aspects of mechanical signaling in plants, spanning perception, effects on plant growth and morphogenesis, and broad ecological significance.During the 1970s, renewed interest in plant mechanical signaling led to the discovery that plants subjected to mechanical stimulation develop shorter and thicker axes than undisturbed plants, a syndrome called thigmomorphogenesis. Currently, mechanosensing is being intensively studied because of its involvement in many physiological processes in plants and particularly in the control of plant morphogenesis. From an ecological point of view, the shaping of plant architecture has to be precisely organized in space to ensure light capture as well as mechanical stability. In natural environments terrestrial plants are subjected to mechanical stimulation mainly due to wind, but also due to precipitation, while aquatic and marine plants are subjected to current and wave energy. Plants acclimate to mechanically challenging environments by sensing mechanical stimulations and modifying their growth in length and diameter and their tissue properties to reduce potential for buckling or breakage. From a morphogenetic point of view, both external and internal mechanical cues play an important role in the control of cell division and meristem development likely by modulating microtubule orientation. How mechanical stimulations are being sensed by plants is an area of intense research. Different types of mechanosensors have been discovered or proposed, including ion channels gated by membrane tension (stretch activation) and plasma membrane receptor-like kinases that monitor the cell wall deformations. Electrophysiologists have measured the conductances of some stretch-activated channels and have showed that SAC of different structures can exhibit different conductances. The role of these differences in conductance has not yet been established. Once a mechanical stimulus has been perceived, it must be converted into a biological signal that can lead to variations of plant phenotype. Calcium has been shown to function as an early second messenger, tightly linked with changes in cytosolic and apoplastic pH. Transcriptional analyses of the effect of mechanical stimulation have revealed a considerable number of differentially expressed genes, some of which appear to be specific to mechanical signal transduction. These genes can thus serve as markers of mechanosensing, for example, in studies attempting to define signalling threshold, or variations of mechanosensitivity (accommodation). Quantitative biomechanical studies have lead to a model of mechanoperception which links mechanical state and plant responses, and provides an integrative tool to study the regulation of mechanosensing. This model includes parameters (sensitivity and threshold) that can be estimated experimentally. It has also been shown that plants are desensitized when exposed to multiple mechanical signals as a function of their mechanical history. Finally, mechanosensing is also involved in osmoregulation or cell expansion. The links between these different processes involving mechanical signalling need further investigation. This frontier research topic provides an overview of the different aspects of mechanical signaling in plants, spanning perception, effects on plant growth and morphogenesis, and broad ecological significance.

Titanium Alloys 2017

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ISBN: 9783038973041 9783038973058 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-305-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 12:09:00
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Titanium is a good example of a material that is globally recognized for its outstanding properties, making it desirable for a range of industries. Titanium and its alloys are utilized in a wide range of industries, including aerospace, automotive and high performance leisure equipment. This Special Issue of Metals focusing on titanium contains a range of articles based on research into this fascinating material and its wide range of alloys. For applications that can withstand the high basic cost of titanium it is shown that the unique properties of the material have the potential to provide further performance improvements to existing industries, whilst offering new opportunities to emerging markets.

Applied Adhesive Bonding in Science and Technology

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ISBN: 9789535138396 9789535138402 9789535140726 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68926 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book brings together scientists and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of some recent developments in the field of adhesive bonding with the contributions of internationally recognized authors. This book is divided into three sections: ""Structural Adhesive Bonding,"" ""Wood Adhesive Bonding,"" and ""Adhesive Bonding in Medical Applications."" Each section presents an important review and some applications of the adhesive bonding in various different disciplines. I hope that the book published in open access will help researchers to benefit from it.

Experimental Investigations of Deformation Pathways in Nanowires

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449053 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: VIII, 202 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000029369 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of nanowires. Experiments are conducted in a dedicated system inside the electron microscope. The mechanical response of various material systems is probed, the underlying deformation mechanisms are elucidated and subsequently put into context with mechanical size effects.

Modified mass-spring system for physically based deformation modeling

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783866447424 Year: Volume: 14 Pages: VII, 222 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000024308 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Mass-spring systems are considered the simplest and most intuitive of all deformable models. They are computationally efficient, and can handle large deformations with ease. But they suffer several intrinsic limitations. In this book a modified mass-spring system for physically based deformation modeling that addresses the limitations and solves them elegantly is presented. Several implementations in modeling breast mechanics, heart mechanics and for elastic images registration are presented.

Investigation of deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals and alloys by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449626 Year: Volume: 13 Pages: X, 223 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000031997 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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In this work, different nanocrystalline metals and alloys were investigated by a synchrotron-based in situ XRD mechanical testing technique in order to investigate the dominant deformation mechanisms. All tested samples show a succession and coexistence of several mechanisms, regardless of grain size, loading condition, or sample geometry. However, the relative shares of the individual mechanisms strongly vary and depend on parameters such as grain size, sample purity, and alloy composition.

Acoustic Waves

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ISBN: 9789533071114 Year: Pages: 478 DOI: 10.5772/277 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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SAW devices are widely used in multitude of device concepts mainly in MEMS and communication electronics. As such, SAW based micro sensors, actuators and communication electronic devices are well known applications of SAW technology. For example, SAW based passive micro sensors are capable of measuring physical properties such as temperature, pressure, variation in chemical properties, and SAW based communication devices perform a range of signal processing functions, such as delay lines, filters, resonators, pulse compressors, and convolvers. In recent decades, SAW based low-powered actuators and microfluidic devices have significantly added a new dimension to SAW technology. This book consists of 20 exciting chapters composed by researchers and engineers active in the field of SAW technology, biomedical and other related engineering disciplines. The topics range from basic SAW theory, materials and phenomena to advanced applications such as sensors actuators, and communication systems. As such, in addition to theoretical analysis and numerical modelling such as Finite Element Modelling (FEM) and Finite Difference Methods (FDM) of SAW devices, SAW based actuators and micro motors, and SAW based micro sensors are some of the exciting applications presented in this book. This collection of up-to-date information and research outcomes on SAW technology will be of great interest, not only to all those working in SAW based technology, but also to many more who stand to benefit from an insight into the rich opportunities that this technology has to offer, especially to develop advanced, low-powered biomedical implants and passive communication devices.

Advances in Sound Localization

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ISBN: 9789533072241 Year: Pages: 606 DOI: 10.5772/597 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Sound source localization is an important research field that has attracted researchers' efforts from many technical and biomedical sciences. Sound source localization (SSL) is defined as the determination of the direction from a receiver, but also includes the distance from it. Because of the wave nature of sound propagation, phenomena such as refraction, diffraction, diffusion, reflection, reverberation and interference occur. The wide spectrum of sound frequencies that range from infrasounds through acoustic sounds to ultrasounds, also introduces difficulties, as different spectrum components have different penetration properties through the medium. Consequently, SSL is a complex computation problem and development of robust sound localization techniques calls for different approaches, including multisensor schemes, null-steering beamforming and time-difference arrival techniques. The book offers a rich source of valuable material on advances on SSL techniques and their applications that should appeal to researches representing diverse engineering and scientific disciplines.

Developments in Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9789533075693 Year: Pages: 702 DOI: 10.5772/822 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book comprises heat transfer fundamental concepts and modes (specifically conduction, convection and radiation), bioheat, entransy theory development, micro heat transfer, high temperature applications, turbulent shear flows, mass transfer, heat pipes, design optimization, medical therapies, fiber-optics, heat transfer in surfactant solutions, landmine detection, heat exchangers, radiant floor, packed bed thermal storage systems, inverse space marching method, heat transfer in short slot ducts, freezing an drying mechanisms, variable property effects in heat transfer, heat transfer in electronics and process industries, fission-track thermochronology, combustion, heat transfer in liquid metal flows, human comfort in underground mining, heat transfer on electrical discharge machining and mixing convection. The experimental and theoretical investigations, assessment and enhancement techniques illustrated here aspire to be useful for many researchers, scientists, engineers and graduate students.

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