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3D Printing of Metals

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ISBN: 9783038425915 9783038425922 Year: Pages: VIII, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-592-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:54:59
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Three-dimensional printing is a futuristic technology capable of transforming the ways in which we make components and devices. It is almost certain that this technique will find its niche in the manufacturing sector in the very near future. In view of the growing importance of 3D printing, this book addresses key issues related to emerging science and technology in this area. Detailed and informative articles are presented in relation to a wide variety of materials, including those based on critical engineering metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium and composites. Advances in various techniques, such as electron beam melting and selective laser melting are discussed. Of key importance in the area of materials science is the end properties of the materials following processing. Accordingly, the articles presented critically discuss the effects of microstructural features such as porosity, forming defects and the heat treatment induced effects on the mechanical properties. Applications covered in these articles are targeted at the aerospace, automobile, defense and aerospace sectors. Overall, the information presented in this book is of significant importance for academic and industrial-based researchers who wish to inform themselves regarding this upcoming highly promising manufacturing technique.

3D Printing of Metals

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ISBN: 9783039213412 / 9783039213429 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-342-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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3D printing is rapidly emerging as a key manufacturing technique that is capable of serving a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from engineering to biomedical sectors. Its ability to form both simple and intricate shapes through computer-controlled graphics enables it to create a niche in the manufacturing sector. Key challenges remain, and a great deal of research is required to develop 3D printing technology for all classes of materials including polymers, metals, ceramics, and composites. In view of the growing importance of 3D manufacturing worldwide, this Special Issue aims to seek original articles to further assist in the development of this promising technology from both scientific and technological perspectives. Targeted reviews, including mini-reviews, are also welcome, as they play a crucial role in educating students and young researchers.

High-Pressure Studies of Crystalline Materials

ISBN: 9783038971313 9783038971320 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-132-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Mathematics --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-20 10:13:12
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[This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue of Crystals: High-Pressure Studies of Crystalline Materials. It also includes additional articles published in Crystals and related to the topic of the Special Issue, which have been selected based upon their relevance and scientific quality.]

L’artisanat du métal à Alep : Héritage et postérité

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782351595435 DOI: 10.4000/books.ifpo.11245 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:32
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Cette recherche a pris forme avec l’ambition initiale de comparer le travail du métal à Alep dans les ateliers encore en place entre 2004 et 2009, avec les mêmes activités à d’autres époques en milieu urbain. La présente publication porte essentiellement sur le volet contemporain. La métallurgie traditionnelle actuelle constitue un système d’éléments en interaction dans la ville : les auteurs croisent ici les aspects techniques (les processus de fabrication) et fonctionnels (l’organisation du travail dans l’atelier et les attitudes corporelles), avec une réflexion sur l’organisation générale de l’espace en rapport avec des considérations culturelles et sociales et avec le fonctionnement des pouvoirs urbains. Cet ouvrage s’intéresse en premier lieu à des ateliers sis dans des souks anciens : forgerons, artisans du cuivre et du bronze, étameurs. Une des questions que pose cette activité porte sur les modes d’intégration de la nouveauté aux savoir-faire et aux fonctionnements hérités, par exemple sur les attitudes du travail et le rapport au sol : travailler assis au sol, assis sur un siège, debout ? La fonderie de fer, d’acier, de fonte, plus moderne, se trouve dans des ateliers plus vastes, dans des zones d’activité officielles ou informelles en périphérie. Ces ateliers font partie d’une autre économie en développement. Le passage de la petite métallurgie traditionnelle du souk aux ateliers moyens semi‑industrialisés, bien plus qu’un déplacement géographique, ne constitue-t-il pas un changement de nature ? Les enquêtes menées par les auteurs à Alep avant 2011 ainsi que leurs photographies et illustrations, enregistrent des activités disparues dont les locaux situés près d’une ligne de front ont servi de champ de bataille et ont été pillés et détruits : leurs témoignages, présentés dans cet ouvrage, possèdent donc essentiellement une valeur patrimoniale.

Keywords

Workshop --- Working space --- Corporal bearing --- Bronze --- Copper --- Copperware --- Ductility --- Iron --- Ironwords --- Kiln --- Lathe-work --- Melting --- Mould --- Pig iron --- Recycling --- Souk

Mineral Fibres

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211449 / 9783039211456 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-145-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) and asbestos containing materials (ACMs) as a source of possible environmental risk. A crucial theme of interest related to environmental pollution is the enhanced mobilization of asbestos minerals affecting soils and rocks due to human activities (e.g., road construction, mining activity) in comparison with natural weathering processes. The volume has aimed to gather contributions and to compare results derived from various experiences of research groups regarding NOA minerals as a source of possible environmental risks for population. Case studies from various geological contexts are presented. Moreover, contributions presenting novel and classical approaches for ACM inertization and recycling, together with possible solutions for reducing asbestos exposure, has been also presented.

Process Modelling and Simulation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039214556 / 9783039214563 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-456-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Since process models are nowadays ubiquitous in many applications, the challenges and alternatives related to their development, validation, and efficient use have become more apparent. In addition, the massive amounts of both offline and online data available today open the door for new applications and solutions. However, transforming data into useful models and information in the context of the process industry or of bio-systems requires specific approaches and considerations such as new modelling methodologies incorporating the complex, stochastic, hybrid and distributed nature of many processes in particular. The same can be said about the tools and software environments used to describe, code, and solve such models for their further exploitation. Going well beyond mere simulation tools, these advanced tools offer a software suite built around the models, facilitating tasks such as experiment design, parameter estimation, model initialization, validation, analysis, size reduction, discretization, optimization, distributed computation, co-simulation, etc. This Special Issue collects novel developments in these topics in order to address the challenges brought by the use of models in their different facets, and to reflect state of the art developments in methods, tools and industrial applications.

Keywords

process model validation --- partial least square regression --- phytochemicals --- natural extracts --- wheat germ --- fluidized bed drying --- mathematical model --- moisture content --- condensation --- simulation --- Pharmaceutical Processes --- Mammalian Cell Culture --- sensitivity analysis --- parameter estimation --- Design of Experiments --- algebraic modeling language --- dynamic optimization --- model predictive control --- moving horizon estimation --- fluid bed granulation --- heat and mass balance --- population balance model --- binder dissolution --- kernel development --- robust optimization --- uncertainty --- point estimation method --- equality constraints --- parameter correlation --- barley --- simulation --- hydration --- swelling --- cooking --- porridge --- extents --- graph theory --- model identification --- observability --- optimal clustering --- parameter estimation --- state decoupling --- data-mining --- machine learning --- neural networks --- chemistry --- materials --- engineering --- energy --- grey-box model --- machine learning --- SOS programming --- process modeling --- scrap dissolution --- scrap melting --- thermodynamics --- kinetics --- dynamic converter modelling --- Combined Heat and Power --- gray-box model --- utility management --- CHP legislation --- optimization --- polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber --- coagulation bath --- dry-jet wet spinning process --- computational fluid dynamics --- wave resonance --- maximum wave amplitude --- reactor coolant pump --- vane --- costing stopping --- mathematical model --- idling test --- n/a

Micro/Nano Manufacturing

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211692 / 9783039211708 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-170-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Micro manufacturing involves dealing with the fabrication of structures in the size range of 0.1 to 1000 µm. The scope of nano manufacturing extends the size range of manufactured features to even smaller length scales—below 100 nm. A strict borderline between micro and nano manufacturing can hardly be drawn, such that both domains are treated as complementary and mutually beneficial within a closely interconnected scientific community. Both micro and nano manufacturing can be considered as important enablers for high-end products. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences is dedicated to recent advances in research and development within the field of micro and nano manufacturing. The included papers report recent findings and advances in manufacturing technologies for producing products with micro and nano scale features and structures as well as applications underpinned by the advances in these technologies.

Keywords

fluid jet polishing --- deterministic polishing --- variable pitch path --- residual error optimization --- path adaptability --- chatter identification --- three-dimensional elliptical vibration cutting --- empirical mode decomposition --- intrinsic mode function --- feature extraction --- micro-EDM molds --- micro-lens array --- contactless embossing --- friction coefficient --- micro 3D printing --- micro stereolithography --- process parameter optimization --- Taguchi’s method --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- flow control --- culture dish adapter --- small recess structure --- closed environment --- perfusion culture --- optical encoder --- grating --- blaze --- injection molding --- micro assembly --- active alignment --- opto-ASIC --- wafer-level optics --- antireflection nanostructure --- microlens array mold --- ultraprecision machining --- anodic aluminum oxide --- spatial uncertainty modeling --- additive manufacturing --- uncertainty quantification --- Image segmentation --- gaussian process modeling --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- surface roughness --- design of experiments --- Ti6Al4V --- SERS --- Surface-enhanced Raman scattering --- nanosphere array --- nanocone array --- hot embossing --- nanoimprinting --- plasma nitriding --- micro-nozzle --- micro-spring --- nitrogen supersaturation --- hardening --- hydrophobicity --- stiffness control --- product development --- conceptual design --- micro assembly --- data structure --- design for manufacturability --- low PC clinker --- Portland limestone ternary fiber–cement nanohybrids --- flexural strength --- TGA/dTG --- XRD --- MIP --- water impermeability tests --- micro and nano manufacturing --- micro-fluidics --- micro-optics --- micro and nano additive manufacturing --- micro-assembly --- surface engineering and interface nanotechnology --- micro factories --- micro reactors --- micro sensors --- micro actuators

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216628 / 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215645 / 9783039215652 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-565-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Building on advances in miniaturization and soft matter, surface tension effects are a major key to the development of soft/fluidic microrobotics. Benefiting from scaling laws, surface tension and capillary effects can enable sensing, actuation, adhesion, confinement, compliance, and other structural and functional properties necessary in micro- and nanosystems. Various applications are under development: microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, soft gripping and manipulation of particles, colloidal and interfacial assemblies, fluidic/droplet mechatronics. The capillary action is ubiquitous in drops, bubbles and menisci, opening a broad spectrum of technological solutions and scientific investigations. Identified grand challenges to the establishment of fluidic microrobotics include mastering the dynamics of capillary effects, controlling the hysteresis arising from wetting and evaporation, improving the dispensing and handling of tiny droplets, and developing a mechatronic approach for the control and programming of surface tension effects. In this Special Issue of Micromachines, we invite contributions covering all aspects of microscale engineering relying on surface tension. Particularly, we welcome contributions on fundamentals or applications related to:Drop-botics: fluidic or surface tension-based micro/nanorobotics: capillary manipulation, gripping, and actuation, sensing, folding, propulsion and bio-inspired solutions; Control of surface tension effects: surface tension gradients, active surfactants, thermocapillarity, electrowetting, elastocapillarity; Handling of droplets, bubbles and liquid bridges: dispensing, confinement, displacement, stretching, rupture, evaporation; Capillary forces: modelling, measurement, simulation; Interfacial engineering: smart liquids, surface treatments; Interfacial fluidic and capillary assembly of colloids and devices; Biological applications of surface tension, including lab-on-chip and organ-on-chip systems. We expect novel as well as review contributions on all aspects of surface tension-based micro/nanoengineering. In line with Micromachines' policy, we also invite research proposals that introduce ideas for new applications, devices, or technologies.

Keywords

mist capillary self-alignment --- laser die transfer --- hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces --- microasssembly --- droplet transport --- microfluidics --- vibrations --- contact line oscillation --- asymmetric surfaces --- anisotropic ratchet conveyor --- surface tension --- capillary --- bearing --- wetting --- computational fluid dynamics --- droplet manipulation --- lab-on-a-chip --- microfluidics --- non-invasive control --- photochemical reaction --- photoresponsible surfactant --- surface tension --- two-phase flow --- wettability --- electrowetting --- actuation --- capillary pressure --- lab-on-a-chip --- Nasturtium leaf --- smart superhydrophobic surface --- hot drop --- condensation --- microtexture melting --- self-lubricating slippery surface --- wettability gradient --- electrosurgical scalpels --- anti-sticking --- soft tissue --- continuous-flow reactor --- mixing --- solutal Marangoni effect --- relaxation oscillations --- super-hydrophobic --- durable --- adhesion --- corrosive resistance --- droplet --- vibrations --- transport --- microfluidics --- self-cleaning surface --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- superomniphobic --- microfluidics --- electrodynamic screen --- gecko setae --- micropipette-technique --- air-water surface --- oil-water interface --- soluble surfactant --- insoluble lipids --- “black lipid films” --- “droplet-interface-bilayers” --- equilibrium --- dynamic --- adsorption --- gas-microbubbles --- oil-microdroplets --- lung-surfactants --- nanoprecipitation --- microfluidics --- capillary gripper --- pick and place --- micromanufacturing --- two-photon polymerization --- stereolithography --- polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication --- rigid gas permeable contact lenses --- wettability --- hydrophilic --- hydrophobic --- 355 nm UV laser --- surface treatment --- microstructure --- contact angle --- droplets --- liquid bridge --- microfabrication --- micromanipulation --- pick-and-place --- soft robotics --- surface tension --- wetting

Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219827 / 9783039219834 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-983-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In recent years, the interest of the scientific community towards efficient energy systems has significantly increased. One of the reasons is certainly related to the change in the temperature of the planet, which has increased by 0.76 °C with respect to preindustrial levels, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and is still increasing. The European Union considers it vital to prevent global warming from exceeding 2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels, as it has been proven that this will result in irreversible and potentially catastrophic changes. These changes in climate are mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions related to human activities, and can be drastically reduced by employing energy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings, as well as for power production, characterized by high efficiency levels and/or based on renewable energy sources. This Special Issue, published in the Energies journal, includes 13 contributions from across the world, including a wide range of applications such as hybrid residential renewable energy systems, desiccant-based air handling units, heat exchanges for engine WHR, solar chimney systems, and other interesting topics.

Keywords

bubble absorber --- absorption cooling --- ammonia-lithium nitrate --- plate heat exchanger --- bentonite buffer material --- Ca-type bentonite --- thermal conductivity --- predictive models --- thermosyphon --- two-phase flow --- startup --- phase change --- operating state --- visualization --- fast thermal simulation --- crude oil pipeline --- batch transportation --- body-fitted coordinate-based proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model (BFC-POD-ROM) --- transport scheme determination --- waste heat recovery --- exhaust steam --- heat exchanger --- protracted fin --- turbo-electric generator --- exhaust emissions --- R744 --- two-phase ejector --- refrigeration --- dynamic simulation --- low-order model --- object-oriented modelling --- desiccant wheel --- solar heating and cooling --- hygroscopic materials --- dynamic simulations --- energy and environmental analysis --- solar chimney --- air flow --- analytical and experimental solutions --- method of calculation --- steelmaking --- electric arc furnace --- consumption --- electric energy --- melting --- refining --- tapping --- modeling --- linear regression --- genetic programming --- renewables --- ancillary services --- hybrid systems --- thermal storage --- energy storage --- microgrids --- heat pump --- model predictive control --- optimization --- Biot number --- genetic algorithms --- drying --- air-cooled steam turbine generator --- single-channel ventilation --- backflow --- radial ventilation duct --- fluid field --- ground source heat pump --- numerical and experimental studies --- ground-air heat exchanger --- geothermal energy --- computational fluid dynamics --- spirally corrugated pipe

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