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Mesothelial Physiology and Pathophysiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455416 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-541-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The mesothelium is composed by a single layer of mesothelial cells that vest the serosal cavities (pleural, peritoneal and pericardial) and internal organs of the body. The mesothelial cells have a mixed phenotype of epithelial cells and fibroblasts rendering them remarkable plasticity. Besides providing a slippery surface for the frictionless movement of internal organs, the mesothelium participates in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Some of its functions include lung development, trans-cellular and para-cellular transport of ions and water, secretion of glycoproteins (mainly hyaluronan), secretion of cytokines and growth factors, wound healing, response to inflammatory stimuli and induction of inflammation, mesothelial to mesenchymal transition and formation of tunneling nanotubes. Many of these functions are pivotal to physiological conditions such as respiratory development, maintenance of steady volume of serosal fluids and serosal permeability, cell-to-cell communication, re-mesotheliazation of serosal membranes after mechanical (e.g. by asbestos or nanoparticles) or inflammatory injury and participation in immune responses. Deviation from the physiological threshold of these functions results in the development of serosal effusions, induction of serosal and lung fibrosis, induction of mesothelial tumorigenesis, leading thus to devastating pathologies. Treatment of pathologies like mesothelioma, pleural and peritoneal fibrosis (in cases of patients under Peritoneal Dialysis) or lung fibrosis still pose a great challenge for researchers.

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038971016 9783038971023 Year: Pages: 226 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-27 15:22:12
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This edited volume is a collection of 12 publications from esteemed research groups around the globe. The articles belong to the following broad categories: biological treatment process parameters, sludge management and disinfection, removal of trace organic contaminants, removal of heavy metals, and synthesis and fouling control of membranes for wastewater treatment.

Phasenstabilisierung und Oberflächenaktivierung von Sauerstoffseparationsmembranen aus dotiertem Ba$_{0,5}$Sr$_{0,5}$Co$_{0,8}$Fe$_{0,2}$O$_{3-?}$

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien - Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Institut für Angewandte Materialien - Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik ISSN: 23658029 ISBN: 9783731508472 Year: Volume: 34 Pages: IV, 246 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000086074 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Ba$_{0,5}$Sr$_{0,5}$Co$_{0,8}$Fe$_{0,2}$O$_{3-?}$ (BSCF) is the most promising material für energy efficient oxygen separation membranes. But its electrical and transport properties are unstable at temperatures below 840 °C. Reasons are structural changes to secondary phases in the cubic lattice. By doping with Y, Ti and Nb the cubic lattice shall be stabilized. Goal of this work are analyses of the dopant’s influences on BSCF’s electrochemical properties.

Mixed Matrix Membranes

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ISBN: 9783039219766 9783039219773 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-977-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have attracted a large amount of interest in research laboratories worldwide in recent decades, motivated by the gap between a growing interest in developing novel mixed matrix membranes by various research groups and the lack of large-scale implementation. This Special Issue contains six publications dealing with the current opportunities and challenges of mixed matrix membranes development and applications to solve environmental and health challenges of the society of 21st century.

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O??? for Oxygen Transport Membranes

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien - Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Institut für Angewandte Materialien - Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik ISSN: 23658029 ISBN: 9783731504375 Year: Volume: 28 Pages: IV, 180 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000049670 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) ceramics as oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) can provide high oxygen permeation rates at comparably low energy demands. For this purpose, Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O??? (BSCF) shows the best performance under ideal operating conditions. Thermal and chemical stability investigations, electrical behavior ?(T,pO?,t), and oxygen exchange parameter extraction by means of electrical conductivity relaxation resulted in a far better understanding of the BSCF system.

Membrane and Membrane Reactors Operations in Chemical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039210220 9783039210237 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-023-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This Special Issue is aimed at highlighting the potentialities of membrane and membrane reactor operations in various sectors of chemical engineering, based on application of the process intensification strategy. In all of the contributions, the principles of process intensification were pursued during the adoption of membrane technology, demonstrating how it may lead to the development of redesigned processes that are more compact and efficient while also being more environmental friendly, energy saving, and amenable to integration with other green processes. This Special Issue comprises a number of experimental and theoretical studies dealing with the application of membrane and membrane reactor technology in various scientific fields of chemical engineering, such as membrane distillation for wastewater treatment, hydrogen production from reforming reactions via inorganic membrane and membrane photoassisted reactors, membrane desalination, gas/liquid phase membrane separation of CO2, and membrane filtration for the recovery of antioxidants from agricultural byproducts, contributing to valorization of the potentialities of membrane operations.

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Pd-based Membranes. Overview and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038977025 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-703-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Palladium (Pd)-based membranes have received a great deal of attention from both academia and industry thanks to their ability to selectively separate hydrogen from gas streams. The integration of such membranes with appropriate catalysts in membrane reactors allows for hydrogen production with CO2 capture that can be applied in smaller bioenergy or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as in large-scale power plants. Pd-based membranes are therefore regarded as a Key Enabling Technology (KET) to facilitate the transition towards a knowledge-based, low-carbon, and resource-efficient economy. This Special Issue of the journal Membranes on “Pd-based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives” contains nine peer-reviewed articles. Topics include manufacturing techniques, understanding of material phenomena, module and reactor design, novel applications, and demonstration efforts and industrial exploitation.

Novel Membrane Technologies for Traditional Industrial Processes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977902 9783038977919 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-791-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Through reading this book, you will obtain information on: (1) the main problems in air separation and natural gas treatment by membrane separation and how to solve them; (2) processes involving membranes and new membrane materials for the more economical utilization of bio-resources; (3) energy selection and membrane development for more expedient and stable harnessing of the natural osmosis phenomenon; (4) many excellent contributions about catalytic membrane bioreactors; (5) how to fine-tune the arrangement of aquaporins (i.e., proteins identified in biological cells) to achieve superior water treatment efficiency.

Biomimetic Radical Chemistry and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039283927 9783039283934 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-393-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The enormous importance of free radical chemistry for a variety of biological events, including ageing and inflammation, has attracted a strong interest in understanding the related mechanistic steps at the molecular level. Modelling the free radical chemical reactivity of biological systems is an important research area. When studying free-radical-based chemical mechanisms, biomimetic chemistry and the design of established biomimetic models come into play to perform experiments in a controlled environment that is suitably designed to be in strict connection with cellular conditions. This Special Issue gives the reader a wide overview of biomimetic radical chemistry, where molecular mechanisms have been defined and molecular libraries of products are developed to also be used as traces for the discovery of some relevant biological processes. Several subjects are presented, with 12 articles and 6 reviews written by specialists in the fields of DNA, proteins, lipids, biotechnological applications, and bioinspired synthesis, having “free radicals” as a common denominator.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- glycogen phosphorylase --- anomeric spironucleosides --- 1,6-dioxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decane --- [1,5]-radical translocation --- DNA --- guanine quadruplexes --- radicals --- electron holes --- oxidative damage --- photo-ionization --- time-resolved spectroscopy --- inhomogeneous reactions --- radiosensitizers --- stationary radiolysis --- pulse radiolysis --- modified nucleosides --- cellular response --- liposomal somatostatin --- retarded delivery --- free radicals --- isomerization --- trans lipid --- peroxidation --- photolysis --- laser flash photolysis --- ?-radiolysis --- singlet oxygen --- nucleosides --- free radicals --- reaction mechanism --- catalase activity --- iron(IV)-oxo --- hydrogen peroxide --- oxidation --- kinetic studies --- gold nanoparticles --- albumin --- EPR spectroscopy --- Raman spectroscopy --- circular dichroism --- beta cells --- diabetes --- confocal microscopy --- lipidomics --- membrane fluidity maps --- cell micropolarity maps --- DNA damage --- 5?,8-cyclopurines --- 8-oxo-dG --- free radicals --- pulse radiolysis --- gamma radiolysis --- Fenton reaction --- oligonucleotides --- oxidative DNA damage --- DNA replication stress --- replication fork stalling --- genomic and epigenomic instability --- DNA methylation --- histone modifications --- miRNAs --- iron porphyrin --- heme --- ATRPase --- iron-mediated ATRP --- bio-mimicking catalyst --- biomimetic radical reaction --- bioinspired chemical catalysis --- protein labeling --- DNA oxidation --- DNA hole transfer --- DNA --- quantum dynamics --- electron transfer --- charge transfer --- radical reaction --- azidoalkylation --- carboazidation --- sulfones --- azides --- Julia–Kocienski olefination --- DNA damage --- copper --- chemical nuclease --- intercalation --- free radical oxidation --- protein stability --- therapeutic proteins --- thiyl radicals --- oxidation --- fragmentation --- cross-link --- 2-thiouracil --- radiosensitizers --- ?OH and ?N3 radicals --- 2c-3e S?S-bonded intermediates --- pulse radiolysis --- TD-DFT methods --- thiobases --- nucleobase derivatives --- reactive aldehydes --- hydroxynonenal --- oxononenal --- free fatty acids --- mitochondrial uncoupling protein --- lipid bilayer membranes

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