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Memory and popular film

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ISBN: 9780719063749 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Performing Arts
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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'Memory and popular film' uses memory as a specific framework for the cultural study of film. Taking Hollywood as its focus, this timely book provides a sustained, interdisciplinary perspective on memory and film from early cinema to the present. Considering the relationship between official and popular memory, the politics of memory, and the technological and representational shifts that have come to effect memory's contemporary mediation, the book contributes to the growing debate on the status and function of the past in cultural life and discourse. By gathering key critics from film studies, American studies and cultural studies, 'Memory and popular film' establishes a framework for discussing issues of memory IN film and of film AS memory. Together with essays on the remembered past in early film marketing, within popular reminiscence, and at film festivals, the book considers memory films such as Forrest Gump, Lone Star, Pleasantville, Rosewood and Jackie Brown. 'Memory and popular film' provides a wide-ranging analysis that will benefit both students and critics of popular culture, film studies and the past.

Keywords

cinema --- memory --- film --- hollywood

Memory

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ISBN: 9780823232598 9780823232611 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_626982 Language: English
Publisher: Fordham University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100617
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-07 11:01:34
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The volume reconstructs the work of the great philosophical and literary figures of the last two centuries who recast the concept of memory and brought it into the forefront of the modernist and postmodernist imagination—among them, Bergson, Halbwachs, Freud, Proust, Benjamin, Adorno, Derrida, and Deleuze. Drawing on recent advances in the sciences and in the humanities, the contributors address the question of how memory works, highlighting transactions between the interiority of subjective memory and the larger fields of public or collective memory.

Transcultural Literary Studies: Politics, Theory, and Literary Analysis

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ISBN: 9783038423959 9783038423942 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 08:59:14
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Witnessing the rise of nationalism, nativism, and xenophobia in many countries, theories of transculturalism arose, in part, out of the concern that multi- and intercultural identity models have not set themselves sufficiently apart from their own culturalist baggage, thus leaving their doors open to strong nationalistic and ethnocentric orientations. But how can we—how can literature—imagine transcultural communities? This volume attempts to examine whether transculturalism—with its questioning of the dominance of group identity and its return to the individual as a privileged site for cultural multiplicity—can offer guideposts for conceptualizing ‘individual’ diversity without underplaying the role of class, religion, and community. Several contributions to the volume view some of the ‘cosmopolitan’ genealogies of transculturalism cautiously, such as elitist individualism and utopianism, teleologically structured conceptualizations of humanism, and an indiscriminating belief in the ascendency of human universals. Nevertheless, highlighting particular understandings of transculturalism in interpretations of significant literary texts from the Middle Ages to the 21st century amounts, once again and by no small measure, to a political decision—one that historically has often been prompted by a search for commonalities as a basis for the design of universal human rights, international law, transnational structures, and global education.

“The Truth about the Desert”

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ISBN: 9783946198321 9783946198352 9783946198338 9783946198345 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.16994/bai Language: English
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Ethnology --- Sociology --- Religion --- History --- Migration --- Linguistics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-09 11:02:04
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"The Truth about the Desert explores the living conditions under which Tuareg refugees from northern Mali rebuild their lives in the Nigerien diaspora and how these conditions affect their self-understandings and cultural practices, established status hierarchies, and religious identity formation. The book counterbalances an earlier scholarly preoccupation with Tuareg nobility by zoning in on two inferior social status groups, the Bellah-Iklan and free-born vassals, which have been neglected in conventional accounts of Tuareg society. By offering a multi-layered analysis of social status and identity formation in the diaspora, it pleads for a more dynamic understanding of Tuareg socio-political hierarchies. Analyzing in detail how both status groups rely on moralizing labels and racial stereotyping to reformulate their own social and ethnic identity, the study highlights refugees’ aspirations and capacities to remake their imaginary and material worlds in the face of adverse and often deeply humiliating living conditions. The book provides vital insights for refugee studies and for scholarly debates on ethnicity, social identity formation, and memory politics. Souleymane Diallo earned his PhD in socio-cultural anthropology from the University of Cologne. His research interests include forceful migrations and memory politics; Islam, spiritual authority, and power in the Sahara; and the theory and practice of anthropological filmmaking."

Keywords

community --- exile --- tuareg --- memory --- refugees

All 3 Types of Glial Cells Are Important for Memory Formation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450251 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-025-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The vertebrate brain contains neurons and 3 classical types of glia cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes and microglia have mainly been studied in gray matter, whereas oligodendrocytes myelinate white matter tracts. Until recently microglial effects were considered mainly during pathological conditions, but is now known that microglia plays important roles also in normal brain function. All these 3 glial cell types and their collaboration with neurons are important for learning. The concept that glia cells are important for cognitive function is not new. A glial-neuronal theory of brain function was proposed by Galambos in 1961. Hyden and Egyhazi demonstrated glial RNA changes in microdissected glia cells during learning in rats in 1963, and astrocytic and oligodendrocytic involvement of K+-mediated effects of learning has been suggested and/or demonstrated from the 1960’s and onwards as recently reviewed by Hertz and Chen (Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 2016). In 1969 van den Berg et al. showed compartmentation of glutamate in brain and thus of production of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, which are essential for learning. That glutamate is synthesized in astrocytes because they in contrast to neurons express the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase was demonstrated 10-15 years later by Yu et al. in cultured astrocytes and Shank et al. in intact brain tissue. However, the present e-book focuses on more recent developments. Most information is available about astrocytic roles in learning. The importance of astrocytes in the tripartite synapse and of microglia in the tetrapartite synapse is illustrated in the front-page figure, which emphasizes the role of gliotransmitters and of Ca2+ transport through gap junctions, coupling astrocytes into a functional syncytium. Astrocytes are important for establishments of brain rhythms, which may differ in different cognitive tasks, and although the exact reason why knock-out of the astrocytic water channel AQP4 impairs memory remains to be established, several possibilities are discussed. The importance of the two astrocyte specific processes glutamate and glutamine formation and glycogenolysis is discussed in considerable detail. Glycogenolysis is important not only for astrocytic processes involved in learning, but also for those in neurons because glycolytically derived lactate has signaling functions in the extracellular space and may be accumulated in minute quantities into very specific and small neuronal structures. Some neurotransmitters stimulating glycogenolysis are also involved in psychiatric disease. Noradrenaline, released from locus coeruleus exerts direct effects on both astrocytes and neurons and in addition promotes secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in brain, and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex, all of which are responsible for stress effects on learning. Lead causes memory impairment by inhibition of glutamine formation due to oxidative stress and reduced effectiveness of the glutathione system. The many adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure on behaviour and learning are caused by a multitude of effects on all three types of glia cells. Traumatic brain injury also exerts multifactorial effects, including microglia/astrocyte-induced secretion of neuroinflammatory molecules and axonal disruption and oligodendrocytic dysfunction. In normal brain oligodendrocytes respond to the depolarization caused by neuronal activity with accelerated conduction velocity and increased compound action potentials which facilitate learning.

Charisma, Medieval and Modern

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038420002 9783038420071 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-007-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:47:14
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What is striking about this collection is that all the writers testify to one fact—the extraordinary fruitfulness of Max Weber's idea of charisma. Proof of the capaciousness of the Weberian idea of charisma is its diffusion outside the academic community, although “charisma” as popularized by the media owes little to Weber. These articles reveal, however, that Weberian charisma is indeed relevant to an astonishing range of phenomena. The expansion of charismaތs territory stretches beyond what Max Weber could have imagined.

Keywords

celebrity --- charisma --- cult --- heroism --- social memory --- Weber

Progress in Episodic Memory Research

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198474 Year: Pages: 513 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-847-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember personal experiences in terms of what happened and where and when it happened. Humans are also able to remember the specific perceptions, emotions and thoughts they had during a particular experience. This highly sophisticated and unique memory system is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The field of episodic memory research is a continuously expanding and fascinating area that unites a broad spectrum of scientists who represent a variety of research disciplines including neurobiology, medicine, psychology and philosophy. Nevertheless, important questions still remain to be addressed. This research topic on the Progress in Episodic Memory Research covers past and current directions in research dedicated to the neurobiology, neuropathology, development, measurement and treatment of episodic memory.

The Transcriptional Regulation of Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198658 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-865-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The formation of various forms of memory involves a series of distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms, many of which are not fully understood. There are highly conserved pathways that are involved in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, which is the primary substrate for memory storage. The formation of short-term (across minutes) memory is mediated by local changes in synapses, while long-term (across hours to days) memory storage is associated with activation of transcription and synthesis of proteins that modify synaptic function. Transcription factors, which can either repress or activate transcription, play a vital role in driving protein synthesis underlying synaptic plasticity and memory, whereby protein synthesis provides the necessary building blocks to accommodate structural changes at the synapse that foster memory formation. Recent data implicate several families of transcription factors that appear critically important in the regulation of memory.In this Topic we will focus on the families of transcription factors thus far found to be critically involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These include cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), Rel/nuclear factor B (Rel/NFB), CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), and early growth response factor (Egr). In recent years, numerous studies have implicated epigenetic mechanisms, changes in gene activity and expression that occur without alteration in gene sequence, in the memory consolidation process. DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling are critically involved in learning and memory, supporting a role of epigenetic mechanisms. Here we provide more evidence of the importance of DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications and the role of histone acetylation and HDAC inhibitors in above mentioned processes.

How Fear and Stress Shape the Mind

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198719 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-871-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The experience of fear and stress leaves an indelible trace on the brain. This indelible trace is observed as both changes in behavior and changes in neuronal structure and function. Fear and stress interact on many levels. The experience of stress may lead to the formation of a fearful memory trace of a place or reminder cue, and fearful memory formation is regulated by the extent of concurrent stress. The concurrent experience of fear and stress may amplify fear and slow fear extinction which may lead to pathology. Fear memory formation involves changes in synaptic plasticity while stress and glucocorticoids change neuronal structure. Thus, both neurons and synapses are changed. These changes can be identified, visualised and mapped within focused microcircuits. In this Research Topic we focus on current advances in both the neurobiology and behavioral consequences of fear and stress.

Hemispheric Bases for Emotion and Memory

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194599 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-459-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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It has become clear that the two halves of the cortex differ in their contributions to both affective and memory processes. Still, the exact nature of the interrelationships among hemispheric function, emotion, and memory remains elusive. For example, controversy remains regarding differential hemispheric involvement in emotion, motivation, and affective style. Regarding memory, although evidence suggests differences in the manner in which the hemispheres interact may be related to memory retrieval, it is still not certain which factors involved in retrieval encourage or inhibit hemispheric communication. The goal of this Research Topic was to bring together diverse scientific perspectives on lateralized brain mechanisms underlying emotion, motivation, and memory. A range of international experts with diverse backgrounds, theoretical perspectives, and experimental methods contributed to the Topic. These contributions inform our understanding of lateralized affective and cognitive processes by providing thorough reviews of our current state of knowledge based on previous literature, by sharing intriguing new empirical findings, and by proposing theoretical models with testable frameworks to stimulate future research.

Keywords

lateralization --- hemisphere --- memory --- emotion --- affect --- handedness --- caffeine

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