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Advances in Seed Biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196753 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-675-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The seed plays a fundamental role in plant reproduction as well as a key source of energy, nutrients and raw materials for developing and sustaining humanity. With an expanding and generally more affluent world population projected to reach nine billion by mid-century, coupled to diminishing availability of inputs, agriculture is facing increasing challenges to ensure sufficient grain production. A deeper understanding of seed development, evolution and physiology will undoubtedly provide a fundamental basis to improve plant breeding practices and ultimately crop yields. Recent advances in genetic, biochemical, molecular and physiological research, mostly brought about by the deployment of novel high-throughput and high-sensitivity technologies, have begun to uncover and connect the molecular networks that control and integrate different aspects of seed development and help determine the economic value of grain crops with unprecedented details. The objective of this e-book is to provide a compilation of original research articles, reviews, hypotheses and perspectives that have recently been published in Frontiers in Plant Science, Plant Evolution and Development as part of the Research Topic entitled "Advances in Seed Biology". Editing this Research Topic has been an extremely interesting, educational and rewarding experience, and we sincerely thank all authors who contributed their expertise and in-depth knowledge of the different topics discussed. We hope that the information presented here will help to establish the state of the art of this field and will convey how exciting and important studying seeds is and hopefully will stimulate a new crop of scientists devoted to investigating the biology of seeds.

Vitamin E

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ISBN: 9783038429050 9783038429067 Year: Pages: VIII, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-22 09:52:09
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Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant system and is exclusively obtained from the diet. In 1922, vitamin E was discovered as a dietary factor essential for reproduction in rats. Meanwhile, vitamin E has revealed many more important molecular properties, such as the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with consequent prevention of the oxidative damage associated with many diseases. In addition, the modulation of signal transduction and gene expression in antioxidant and non-antioxidant manners was shown for vitamin E.This Special Issue highlights some of the recent advances in vitamin E research, showing on the one hand the status quo and providing, on the other hand, new insights into functions and physiological relevance. Thus, the current knowledge of tocochromanol biosynthesis in plants and future challenges regarding the understanding of its regulation are presented. Another paper describes the fate of vitamin E in the human gastrointestinal lumen during digestion. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites 13’-hydroxychromanol and 13’-carboxychromanol are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. Their occurrence in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Another paper describes the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions of adult rhesus monkeys, also looking for associations between membrane α-tocopherol and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Harm and Benefit of Plant and Fungal Secondary Metabolites in Food Animal Production

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455065 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-506-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Livestock species are either herbivores or omnivores that are maintained largely on plant-based diets. We have long appreciated the importance of understanding dietary plants from both nutritional and agronomic perspectives. However, it is increasingly clear that the fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms that live in the plants and animals are also significant factors in the ecology of agricultural animals. Many of the effects exerted on animals by dietary plants are attributable to secondary metabolites produced by the plants themselves or commensal microorganisms. Some fungal and plant secondary metabolites have multiple biological effects. We must be careful not to categorize a plant as strictly beneficial or harmful. Furthermore, we must be careful not to categorize even a particular plant or fungal compound as strictly beneficial or harmful. Rather, the harm or benefit of secondary metabolites are often dependent on the metabolic status of the animal, the interaction with other dietary factors including other secondary metabolites, and the dose received through the diet. This collection examines a range of agriculturally important plant and fungal products including essential oils, alkaloids, isoflavones and nitrates.

Hormones, Metabolism and the Benefits of Exercise

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Book Series: Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions ISSN: 1861-2253 ISBN: 9783319727899 9783319727905 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72790-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Fondation Ipsen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 10:36:57
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The world is faced with an epidemic of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. This is due to changes in dietary habits and the decrease in physical activity. Exercise is usually part of the prescription, the first line of defense, to prevent or treat metabolic disorders. However, we are still learning how and why exercise provides metabolic benefits in human health. This open access volume focuses on the cellular and molecular pathways that link exercise, muscle biology, hormones and metabolism. This will include novel “myokines” that might act as new therapeutic agents in the future.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 / 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat

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ISBN: 9783038979005 / 9783038979012 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-901-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Cancer survival rates and successful organ transplantation in patients continues to increase due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatments. Since immuno-suppressive therapies are frequently used, the mortality rate due to secondary infections has become an ever-increasing problem. Opportunistic fungal infections are probably the deadliest threat to these patients due to their difficult early diagnosis, the limited effect of antifungal drugs and the appearance of resistances. In recent years, a considerable effort has been devoted to investigating the role of many virulence traits in the pathogenic outcome of fungal infections. New virulence factors (hypoxia adaptation, CO2 sensing, pH regulation, micronutrient acquisition, secondary metabolites, immunity regulators, etc.) have been reported and their molecular mechanisms of action are being thoroughly investigated. The recent application of gene-editing technologies such as CRISPr-Cas9, has opened a whole new window to the discovery of new fungal virulence factors. Accurate fungal genotyping, Next Generation Sequencing and RNAseq approaches will undoubtedly provide new clues to interpret the plethora of molecular interactions controlling these complex systems. Unraveling their intimate regulatory details will provide insights for a more target-focused search or a rational design of more specific antifungal agents. This Special Issue is show significant discoveries, proofs of concept of new theories or relevant observations in fungal pathogenesis and its regulation.

Wine and Vine Components and Health

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ISBN: 9783039211388 / 9783039211395 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-139-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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While there is a tremendous literature on the topic of wine and health ranging back to the days of Hippocrates, it is considered that there is an unlimited variety of wine, allowing for the association of senses, nutrition, and hedonism. The history of vine and wine has lasted for at least 7000 years. Vitis represent adaptable plants, and thanks to the large variety of strains, wine is an alchemical mix with unique properties, a rich and original composition in terms of polyphenols, and well known antioxidants. This explains why wine and health are closely linked to nutrition.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products 2018

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ISBN: 9783038977889 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-789-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Throughout most of history, medicinal plants and their active metabolites have represented a valuable source of compounds used to prevent and to cure several diseases. Interest in natural compounds is still high as they represent a source of novel biologically/pharmacologically active compounds. Due to their high structural diversity and complexity, they are interesting structural scaffolds that can offer promising candidates for the study of new drugs, functional foods, and food additives.Plant extracts are a highly complex mixture of compounds and qualitative and quantitative analyses are necessary to ensure their quality. Furthermore, greener methods of extraction and analysis are needed today.This book is based on articles submitted for publication in the Special Issue entitled “Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products” that collected original research and reviews on these topics.

Keywords

Talaromyces pinophilus --- talarodiolide --- macrodiolides --- GC/MS --- secondary metabolites --- anthocyanins --- red cabbage --- recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography --- stability --- UHPLC-MS/MS --- decursin --- decursinol angelate --- nodakenin --- decursinol --- Ginkgo biloba Extract (GBE) --- chromatogram-bioactivity correlation --- bioactive compounds --- endothelial function --- wine --- volatile compounds --- terrain conditions --- odor-activity values --- SPME-GC/MS --- Bolbostemma paniculatum --- identification --- LTQ-Orbitrap --- UPLC --- multivariate statistical analysis --- cannabidiol --- CBD oil --- terpenes --- hemp seed oil --- GC-MS --- HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS --- Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro onion cultivar --- geographical origin --- amino acids content --- HPLC analysis --- statistical evaluations --- food traceability --- aleuritolic acid --- autophagy --- apoptosis --- HPLC --- Curcuma longa --- turmeric --- curcuminoids --- turmerone --- quantification --- Quercus acuta leaf --- antioxidant --- antibacterial activity --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Erigeron breviscapus extract --- UPLC-ESI-MS/MS --- cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury --- scutellarin --- scutellarein --- HPLC --- Podospermum --- Scorzonera --- triterpenes --- ginseng berry extract --- ginsenosides --- stereoselective and simultaneous analysis --- pharmacokinetics --- oral administration --- saffron --- crocins --- UHPLC analysis --- separation optimisation --- artificial neural network --- response surface methodology --- bioactive natural compounds --- secondary metabolites --- Alzheimer’s disease --- Olea europaea L. --- liquid chromatography --- gas chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- secondary metabolites --- olive leaves --- Moroccan region --- phenolic compounds --- liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry --- chemometrics --- metabolic profiling --- Sorbus --- fruit powders --- phenolic compounds --- carotenoids --- sugars --- organic acids --- chili --- capsaicinoids --- phenolics --- free radical-scavenging --- geographical variation --- 1-triacontanol --- HPLC-ELSD --- biostimulant --- method validation --- Myristica fragrans --- nutmeg --- essential oil --- ionic liquids --- hydrodistillation --- MODDE experimental design --- rice --- phenolic compounds --- phenolic acids --- flavonoids --- anthocyanins --- proanthocyanidins --- antioxidant activity --- extraction --- HPLC methods --- phenolic compounds --- Spondias spp. --- UPLC-MS --- antioxidant capacity --- Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz. --- HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS --- qualitative analysis --- quantitative analysis --- C-glycosylflavone --- traditional Chinese medicine decoction --- quality evaluation --- UPLC-QTOF-MS --- UFLC-QQQ-MS --- ShenFu prescription decoction

Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and Trichoderma Species

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ISBN: 9783038979807 / 9783038979814 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-981-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The importance of bioactive natural compounds in pharmacology and other biotechnological fields has stimulated the scientific community to explore new environmental contexts and their associated microbial diversity. As the largest frontier in biological discovery, the sea represents a significant source of organisms producing novel secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. Of the available biological material, fungi have received increasing consideration, both due to their pervasive occurrence in varying habitats as well as their aptitude to develop symbiotic associations with higher organisms in numerous contexts. In many cases, fungal strains have been reported as the real producers of drugs originally extracted from marine plants and animals. Due to the constantly increasing number of marine-derived fungi yielding valuable bioactive products, it is now appropriate to present these findings to a recipient audience in a more organized form. This Special Issue of Marine Drugs, entitled “Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Trichoderma Species"" is specifically focused on a few genera of ascomycetous fungi which are widespread regarding marine contexts and are particularly inclined to establishing symbiotic relationships. For this project, we welcome submissions of full research papers, short notes, and review articles reporting the discovery and characterization of products showing antibiotic, antitumor, antiviral, insecticidal, antimalarial, antifouling, antioxidant, plant growth-promoting and/or resistance-inducing, as well as other less-exploited activities.

Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation

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ISBN: 9783039212750 / 9783039212767 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-276-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In recent years, great attention has been paid to polyphenols due to their positive effects on health. One of the most widely-studied phenolic compounds is resveratrol. This molecule, which is naturally present in some foods, shows beneficial effects on various physiological and biochemical processes, thus representing a potential tool for the prevention or the treatment of diseases highly prevalent in our society. Several of these beneficial effects have been observed in human beings, but others only in pre-clinical studies so far, and therefore, it is mandatory to continue with the scientific research in this field. Indeed, new knowledge concerning these issues could enable the development of novel functional foods or nutraceuticals, incorporating resveratrol, suitable for preventing or treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, dislipemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, liver diseases, etc.

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