Search results: Found 5

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

Immunotherapy for Tumor in the Brain: Insights From - and For - Other Tumor Sites

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455355 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-535-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Tumor immunotherapy has now shown its promise for many, its disappointments and failings for others. Going forward, brain tumor patients can both benefit and contribute.Tumor immunotherapy is steadily progressing. As experience accumulates, it is important to consider its generality. The reviews herein emphasize the brain’s place among other tumor sites. Two major topics are addressed.THE SITE: WHAT CAN WE EXPECT FROM IMMUNOTHERAPY WHEN THE TARGET IS IN THE BRAIN?Experience with immunotherapy for different targets in the brain, including tumor and also pathogens, is reviewed. Long-standing assumptions are confronted. The potential for beneficial responses is stressed.BRAIN TUMOR IMMUNOTHERAPY: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED SO FAR?Clinical experience with brain tumor immunotherapy, from a variety of centers, is reviewed. Primary tumors, emphasizing glioblastoma, and brain metastases are each considered.

Clinical Application of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT): Cranium to Prostate

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198467 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-846-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a relatively recent radiation technique initially developed using a frame-based system in 1949 by a Swedish neurosurgeon, Lars Leksell, for lesions not amendable to surgical resection. Radiosurgery is founded on principles of extreme radiation dose escalation, afforded by precise dose delivery with millimeter accuracy. Building upon the success of frame-based radiosurgery techniques, which were limited to cranial tumors and invasive head-frame placement, advances in radiation delivery and image-guidance have lead to the development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). SBRT allows for frameless delivery of dose distributions akin to frame-based cranial stereotactic radiosurgery to both cranial and extra-cranial sites and has emerged as a important treatment strategy for a variety of cancers from the cranium to prostate. Herein we highlight ongoing investigations for the clinical application of SBRT for a variety of primary and recurrence cancers aimed at examining the growing clinical evidence supporting emerging roles for SBRT in the ever growing oncologic armamentarium.

Marine Glycosides

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038979029 9783038979036 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-903-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the publication of papers on the chemistry, biology, and potential clinical uses of marine glycosides. Indeed, more than half of the papers published in this field are less than a decade old. Glycosides have been isolated from species as diverse as algae, fungi, anthozoans, and echinoderms. Even fish of the genus Pardachirus produce glycosides, which they use as shark repellents.The major interest in these compounds as potential drugs stems from their broad spectrum of biological effects. They have been shown to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatory, and anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of marine glycosides include cell cycle suppression, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of migration, invasion, and metastasis, as well as antiangiogenesis. Marine glycosides influence membrane permeability and have been shown to influence membrane transport at the molecular level through effects on transport carriers and pumps, as well as effects on ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels. Various marine glycosides have been shown to activate sphingomyelinase and ceramide synthesis, to inhibit topoisomerase activity, receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and multidrug resistance protein activity, and to antagonize eicosanoid receptors.This Special Issue covers the entire scope of marine organism-derived glycosides that are of potential value as pharmaceutical agents or leads. These include, but are not limited to, tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, other triterpene glycosides, steroid glycosides, and glycosides of non-isoprenoid aglycones.

Application of Bioinformatics in Cancers

Author:
ISBN: 9783039217885 / 9783039217892 Year: Pages: 418 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-789-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This collection of 25 research papers comprised of 22 original articles and 3 reviews is brought together from international leaders in bioinformatics and biostatistics. The collection highlights recent computational advances that improve the ability to analyze highly complex data sets to identify factors critical to cancer biology. Novel deep learning algorithms represent an emerging and highly valuable approach for collecting, characterizing and predicting clinical outcomes data. The collection highlights several of these approaches that are likely to become the foundation of research and clinical practice in the future. In fact, many of these technologies reveal new insights about basic cancer mechanisms by integrating data sets and structures that were previously immiscible.

Keywords

comorbidity score --- mortality --- locoregionally advanced --- HNSCC --- curative surgery --- traditional Chinese medicine --- health strengthening herb --- cancer treatment --- network pharmacology --- network target --- high-throughput analysis --- brain metastases --- colorectal cancer --- KRAS mutation --- PD-L1 --- tumor infiltrating lymphocytes --- drug resistance --- gefitinib --- erlotinib --- biostatistics --- bioinformatics --- Bufadienolide-like chemicals --- molecular mechanism --- anti-cancer --- bioinformatics --- cancer --- brain --- pathophysiology --- imaging --- machine learning --- extreme learning --- deep learning --- neurological disorders --- pancreatic cancer --- TCGA --- curation --- DNA --- RNA --- protein --- single-biomarkers --- multiple-biomarkers --- cancer-related pathways --- colorectal cancer --- DNA sequence profile --- Monte Carlo --- mixture of normal distributions --- somatic mutation --- tumor --- mutable motif --- activation induced deaminase --- AID/APOBEC --- transcriptional signatures --- copy number variation --- copy number aberration --- TCGA mining --- cancer CRISPR --- firehose --- gene signature extraction --- gene loss biomarkers --- gene inactivation biomarkers --- biomarker discovery --- chemotherapy --- microarray --- ovarian cancer --- predictive model --- machine learning --- overall survival --- observed survival interval --- skin cutaneous melanoma --- The Cancer Genome Atlas --- omics --- breast cancer prognosis --- artificial intelligence --- machine learning --- decision support systems --- cancer prognosis --- independent prognostic power --- omics profiles --- histopathological imaging features --- cancer --- intratumor heterogeneity --- genomic instability --- epigenetics --- mitochondrial metabolism --- miRNAs --- cancer biomarkers --- breast cancer detection --- machine learning --- feature selection --- classification --- denoising autoencoders --- breast cancer --- feature extraction and interpretation --- concatenated deep feature --- cancer modeling --- interaction --- histopathological imaging --- clinical/environmental factors --- oral cancer --- miRNA --- bioinformatics --- datasets --- biomarkers --- TCGA --- GEO DataSets --- hormone sensitive cancers --- breast cancer --- StAR --- estrogen --- steroidogenic enzymes --- hTERT --- telomerase --- telomeres --- alternative splicing --- network analysis --- hierarchical clustering analysis --- differential gene expression analysis --- cancer biomarker --- diseases genes --- variable selection --- false discovery rate --- knockoffs --- bioinformatics --- copy number variation --- cell-free DNA --- methylation --- mutation --- next generation sequencing --- self-organizing map --- head and neck cancer --- treatment de-escalation --- HP --- molecular subtypes --- tumor microenvironment --- Bioinformatics tool --- R package --- machine learning --- meta-analysis --- biomarker signature --- gene expression analysis --- survival analysis --- functional analysis --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- artificial intelligence --- Network Analysis --- single-cell sequencing --- circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) --- Neoantigen Prediction --- precision medicine --- Computational Immunology

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Narrow your search