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Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

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ISBN: 9783039211326 / 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

Unconventional Anticancer Metallodrugs and Strategies to Improve their Pharmacological Profile

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ISBN: 9783039213153 / 9783039213160 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-316-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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For the past 40 years, metal-based drugs have been widely used for the treatment of cancer. Cisplatin and follow-up drugs carboplatin (ParaplatinTM) and oxaliplatin (EloxatinTM) have been the gold standard for metallodrugs in clinical settings as antineoplastic agents. While effective, these drugs (either alone or in combination therapy) have faced a number of clinical challenges resulting from their limited spectrum of activity, high toxicity leading to significant side effects, resistance, poor water solubility, low bioavailability and short circulating time. In the past 10 years, various unconventional non-platinum metal-based agents have emerged as a potential alternative for cancer treatment. These compounds are highly effective and selective in cancers resistant to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents. Research in this area has recently exploded with a relevant number of patents and clinical trials, in addition to reports in scientific journals. Furthermore, in parallel to the synthesis of coordination and organometallic compounds comprising many different metals and unconventional platinum-based derivatives, researchers are focused on optimizing mechanistic and pharmacological features of promising drug candidates. This Special Issue aims to highlight the latest advances in anticancer metallodrugs with a focus on unconventional anticancer agents, as well as novel activation, targeting and delivery strategies aimed at improving their pharmacological profile.

Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218486 / 9783039218493 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-849-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Development of strategies to assist the movement of poorly permeable molecules across biological barriers has long been the goal of drug delivery science. In the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in advanced drug delivery systems that aim to address this issue. However, most proprietary delivery technologies that have progressed to clinical development are based on permeation enhancers (PEs) that have a history of safe use in man. This Special Issue entitled “Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field” aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the application of PEs to improve drug absorption. Emphasis is placed on identification of novel permeation enhancers, mechanisms of barrier alteration, physicochemical properties of PEs that contribute to optimal enhancement action, new delivery models to assess PEs, studies assessing safety of PEs, approaches to assist translation of PEs into effective oral, nasal, ocular and vaginal dosage forms and combining PEs with other delivery strategies.

Keywords

absorption enhancers --- sugar-based surfactants --- biocompatibility studies --- transmucosal drug delivery --- intestinal permeation enhancers --- sodium cholate (NaC) --- N-dodecyl-?-D-maltoside (DDM) --- small intestine --- enterocyte --- brush border --- tryptophan --- oral delivery --- insulin --- GLP-1 --- intestinal absorption --- amino acid --- cell-penetrating peptide --- combined microsphere --- chitosan --- cyclodextrin --- nasal delivery --- nose to brain transport --- penetration enhancer --- nasal formulation --- in vivo studies --- nose to brain delivery --- antiepileptic drug --- drug delivery --- block copolymers --- thermogel system --- chitosan derivatives --- amphiphilic polymers --- polymeric micelles --- quaternization --- curcumin --- intestinal delivery --- mucoadhesiveness --- cervicovaginal tumors --- cationic functionalization --- imatinib --- nanocrystals --- in situ hydrogel --- bioenhancer --- cytochrome P450 --- drug absorption enhancer --- efflux --- metabolism --- P-glycoprotein --- pharmacokinetic interaction --- tight junction --- Aloe vera --- gel --- whole leaf --- absorption enhancement --- Caco-2 --- confocal laser scanning microscopy --- F-actin --- FITC-dextran --- tight junctions --- transepithelial electrical resistance --- permeation enhancer --- oral delivery --- formulation --- permeability --- safety --- simulated intestinal fluid --- hydrophobization --- epithelium --- compound 48/80 --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- mast cell activator --- vaccine adjuvant --- nasal vaccination --- absorption enhancer --- antimicrobial peptide --- Caco-2 --- claudin --- cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) --- drug delivery --- intestinal epithelial cells --- KLAL --- PN159 --- tight junction modulator --- oral macromolecule delivery --- oral peptides --- sodium caprate --- salcaprozate sodium --- epithelial permeability --- epithelial transport --- nasal permeability --- nose-to-brain --- simvastatin --- nanocapsules --- mucoadhesion --- CNS disorders --- chitosan --- nasal --- pulmonary --- drug administration --- absorption enhancers --- nanoparticle --- and liposome --- absorption enhancer --- gemini surfactant --- intestinal absorption --- poorly absorbed drug --- Caco-2 cells --- PTH 1-34 --- teriparatide --- nasal delivery --- pharmacokinetics --- osteoporosis --- man --- sheep --- clinical trial --- preclinical --- Caco-2 --- intestinal absorption --- nanomedicine --- nanoparticle --- oral delivery --- transferrin --- ocular drug delivery --- cornea --- penetration enhancers --- ocular conditions --- ophthalmology --- permeation enhancers --- absorption modifying excipients --- oral delivery --- nasal delivery --- ocular delivery --- vaginal delivery --- transmucosal permeation

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eng (3)


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