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Biotechnology of Microalgae, Based on Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Algae and Cyanobacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451296 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-129-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Bioechnology of microalgae takes much attention because of their ability to utilize light energy and fix CO2. Research in biotechnology of microalgae including eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria is an important and attractive topic which attracts the interests of the public widely. This Research Topic aims to create a collection approaching biotechnology and biology of eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. Basic science of molecular biology and biochemistry is indispensable for proceeding future application of microalgae, and hence, the title includes "molecular biology" and "biochemistry". Broad range of basic and applied science of microalgae is appreciated in this special topic.

Recombinant protein expression in microbial systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192946 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-294-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, expressing heterologous proteins in microorganisms rapidly became the method of choice for their production at laboratory and industrial scale. Bacteria, yeasts and other hosts can be grown to high biomass levels efficiently and inexpensively. Obtaining high yields of recombinant proteins from this material was only feasible thanks to constant research on microbial genetics and physiology that led to novel strains, plasmids and cultivation strategies. Despite the spectacular expansion of the field, there is still much room for progress. Improving the levels of expression and the solubility of a recombinant protein can be quite challenging. Accumulation of the product in the cell can lead to stress responses which affect cell growth. Buildup of insoluble and biologically inactive aggregates (inclusion bodies) lowers the yield of production. This is particularly true for obtaining membrane proteins or high-molecular weight and multi-domain proteins. Also, obtaining eukaryotic proteins in a prokaryotic background (for example, plant or animal proteins in bacteria) results in a product that lack post-translational modifications, often required for functionality. Changing to a eukaryotic host (yeasts or filamentous fungi) may not be a proper solution since the pattern of sugar modifications is different than in higher eukaryotes. Still, many advances in the last couple of decades have provided to researchers a wide variety of strategies to maximize the production of their recombinant protein of choice. Everything starts with the careful selection of the host. Be it bacteria or yeast, a broad list of strains is available for overcoming codon use bias, incorrect disulfide bond formation, protein toxicity and lack of post-translational modifications. Also, a huge catalog of plasmids allows choosing for different fusion partners for improving solubility, protein secretion, chaperone co-expression, antibiotic resistance and promoter strength. Next, controlling culture conditions like temperature, inducer and media composition can bolster recombinant protein production. With this Research Topic, we aim to provide an encyclopedic account of the existing approaches to the expression of recombinant proteins in microorganisms, highlight recent discoveries and analyze the future prospects of this exciting and ever-growing field.

Advances in Microalgae Biology and Sustainable Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450145 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-014-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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It has become more evident that many microalgae respond very differently than land plants to diverse stimuli. Therefore, we cannot reduce microalgae biology to what we have learned from land plants biology. However, we are still at the beginning of a comprehensive understanding of microalgae biology. Microalgae have been posited several times as prime candidates for the development of sustainable energy platforms, making thus the in-depth understanding of their biological features an important objective. Thus, the knowledge related to the basics of microalgae biology must be acquired and shared rapidly, fostering the development of potential applications. Microalgae biology has been studied for more than forty years now and more intensely since the 1970’s, when genetics and molecular biology approaches were integrated into the research programs. Recently, studies on the molecular physiology of microalgae have provided evidences on the particularities of these organisms, mainly in model species, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Of note, cellular responses in microalgae produce very interesting phenotypes, such as high lipid content in nitrogen deprived cells, increased protein content in cells under high CO2 concentrations, the modification of flagella structure and motility in basal body mutant strains, the different ancient proteins that microalgae uses to dissipate the harmful excess of light energy, the hydrogen production in cells under sulfur deprivation, to mention just a few. Moreover, several research groups are using high-throughput and data-driven technologies, including “omics” approaches to investigate microalgae cellular responses at a system-wide level, revealing new features of microalgae biology, highlighting differences between microalgae and land plants. It has been amazing to observe the efforts towards the development and optimization of new technologies required for the proper study of microalgae, including methods that opened new paths to the investigation of important processes such as regulatory mechanisms, signaling crosstalk, chemotactic mechanisms, light responses, chloroplast controlled mechanisms, among others. This is an exciting moment in microalgae research when novel data are been produced and applied by research groups from different areas, such as bioprocesses and biotechnology. Moreover, there has been an increased amount of research groups focused in the study of microalgae as a sustainable source for bioremediation, synthesis of bioproducts and development of bioenergy. Innovative strategies are combining the knowledge of basic sciences on microalgae into their applied processes, resulting in the progression of many applications that hopefully, will achieve the necessary degree of optimization for economically feasible large-scale applications. Advances on the areas of basic microalgae biology and novelties on the essential cellular processes were revealed. Progress in the applied science showed the use of the basic science knowledge into fostering translational research, proposing novel strategies for a sustainable world scenario. In this present e-book, articles presented by research groups from different scientific areas showed, successfully, the increased development of the microalgae research. Herewith, you will find articles ranging from bioprospecting regional microalgae species, through advances in microalgae molecular physiology to the development of techniques for characterization of biomass and the use of biomass into agriculture and bioenergy production. This e-book is an excellent source of knowledge for those working with microalgae basic and applied sciences, and a great opportunity for researchers from both areas to have an overview of the amazing possibilities we have for building an environmentally sustainable future once the knowledge is translated into novel applications.

Marine Biomolecules

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196616 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-661-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Oceans include the greatest extremes of pressure, temperature and light, and habitats can range from tropical waters to ocean trenches, several kilometers below sea level at high pressure. With its 70% of the surface of our planet marine ecosystem still remains largely unexplored, understudied and underexploited in comparison with terrestrial ecosystems, organisms and bioprocesses. The biological adaptation of marine organisms to a wide range of environmental conditions in the specific environment (temperature, salinity, tides, pressure, radiation, light, etc.) has made them an enormous reservoir of interesting biological material for both basic research and biotechnological improvements. As a consequence marine ecosystem is valued as a source of enzymes and other biomolecules exhibiting new functions and activities to fulfill human needs. Indeed, in recent years it has been recognised as an untapped source of novel enzymes and metabolites even though, with regard to the assignment of precise biological functions to genes, proteins and enzymes, it is still considered as the least developed. Using metagenomics to recover genetic material directly from environmental samples, this biogenetic diversification can be accessed but despite the contributions from metagenomic technologies the new field requires major improvements. A few words on the complexity of marine environments should be added here. This complexity ranges from symbiotic relationships to biology and chemistry of defence mechanisms and from chemoecology of marine invasions up to the strategies found in prokaryotes to adapt to extreme environments. The interdisciplinary study of this complexity will enable researchers to find an arsenal of enzymes and pathways greatly demanded in biotechnological applications. As far as marine enzymes are concerned they may carry novel chemical and stereochemical properties, thus biocatalytically oriented studies (testing of suitable substrates, appropriate checking of reaction conditions, study of stereochemical asset of catalysis) should be performed to appropriately reveal this “chemical biodiversity” which increases interest for these enzymes. Among other biomolecules, polysaccharides are the most abundant renewable biomaterial found on land and in oceans. Their molecular diversity is very interesting; except polysaccharides used traditionally in food and non-food industries, the structure and the functionality of most of them are unknown and unexplored. Brown seaweeds synthesize unique bioactive polysaccharides: laminarans, alginic acids and fucoidans. A wide range of biological activities (anticoagulant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, etc.) have been attributed to fucoidans and their role with respect to structure-activity relationship is still under debate. In this Research Topic, we wish to centralize and review contributions, idea and comments related to the issues above. In particular results of enzymatic bioprospecting in gross marine environment will be acknowledged along with research for structural characterization and biological function of biomolecules such as marine polysaccharides and all kind of research related to the complexity of bioprocesses in marine environments. Inter- and multi-disciplinary approach to this field is favoured in this Research Topic and could greatly be facilitated by the web and open access nature as well.

Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

Novel Membrane Technologies for Traditional Industrial Processes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977902 / 9783038977919 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-791-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Through reading this book, you will obtain information on: (1) the main problems in air separation and natural gas treatment by membrane separation and how to solve them; (2) processes involving membranes and new membrane materials for the more economical utilization of bio-resources; (3) energy selection and membrane development for more expedient and stable harnessing of the natural osmosis phenomenon; (4) many excellent contributions about catalytic membrane bioreactors; (5) how to fine-tune the arrangement of aquaporins (i.e., proteins identified in biological cells) to achieve superior water treatment efficiency.

Biocatalysis and Pharmaceuticals: A Smart Tool for Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783039217083 / 9783039217090 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-709-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biocatalysis, that is, the use of biological catalysts (enzymes, cells, etc.) for the preparation of highly valuable compounds is undergoing a great development, being considered an extremely sustainable approach to undertaking environmental demands. In this scenario, this book illustrates the versatility of applied biocatalysis for the preparation of drugs and other bioactive compounds through the presentation of different research articles and reviews, in which several authors describe the most recent developments in this appealing scientific area. By reading the excellent contributions gathered in this book, it is possible to have an updated idea about new advances and possibilities for a new exciting future.

Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents

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ISBN: 9783039215720 / 9783039215737 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-573-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Acute inflammation is a highly regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the development of a chronic inflammatory state which is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the need to find new anti-inflammatory molecules has raised the scientific community´s interest for marine natural products. In this regard, the marine environment represents a source for isolating a wealth of bioactive compounds. In this Special Issue, the reported products have been obtained from microalgae, sea cucumber, octopus, squid, red alga-derived fungus, cnidarians, hard-shelled mussel, and sponges.

Keywords

THP-1 macrophages --- anti-inflammatory --- TLR4 --- NF-?B --- MAPK --- SPR analysis --- glycolipids --- MGDG --- skin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- microalgae --- Isochrysis galbana --- Frondanol --- Cucumaria frondosa --- DSS colitis --- colon inflammation --- zoantharia --- Tropical Eastern Pacific --- Zoanthus pulchellus --- zoanthamine --- inflammation --- fucoxanthin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- UVB --- photoprotection --- 6-bromoindole --- Geodia barretti --- anti-inflammatory activity --- dendritic cells --- T cell differentiation --- poor blood circulation --- Ecklonia cava --- phlorotannins --- pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol --- functional ingredients --- endothelial cell death --- vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration --- inflammation --- anti-inflammatory --- bioactive molecules --- microalgae --- polysaccharides --- carotenoids --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- fucoxanthin --- ultraviolet B --- denervation --- seafood waste --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- NO inhibition --- fish oil --- marine nutraceuticals --- fish oil --- omega-3 --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- inflammation --- eicosanoid --- cytokine --- surgery --- critical illness --- parenteral nutrition --- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) --- matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) --- interleukin (IL) --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- acute sickness behavior --- acute lung injury (ALI) --- prostaglandins --- clavulones --- punaglandins --- thromboxane --- inflammation --- marine vertebrates --- marine invertebrates --- diatoms --- macroalgae --- fucoxanthin --- rosmarinic acid --- NRLP3 --- inflammasome --- anti-oxidative --- anti-inflammatory --- photo-protection --- UVB

Carotenoids and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218325 / 9783039218332 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-833-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of approximately 600 compounds synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These pigments are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain animal products such as eggs and salmon, being responsible for their colorful appearance. The bioactive properties of certain carotenoids in human health are clear, as some of these compounds have antioxidant properties and serve as the only precursors of vitamin A in nature. The aim of this Special Issue entitled “Carotenoids and Human Health” is to provide the scientific community with an updated perspective of this exciting and growing research area. We compiled 19 papers from some of the most prominent scientists in the carotenoid field, including seven literature reviews and 12 original publication, covering topics such as cancer, obesity, vision, cognitive function, and skin health.

Keywords

carotenoids --- lycopene --- gastric cancer --- H. pylori --- smoking --- case-control study --- Korea --- cancer-related cognitive impairment --- cognition --- carotenoid --- memory --- inflammation --- mango by-products --- lutein --- ?-carotene --- ?-tocopherol --- mangiferin --- food ingredients --- astaxanthin --- Akkermansia --- alcoholic fatty liver disease --- inflammation --- gut microbiota --- lycopene --- carotene --- retinoic acid --- retinoid --- vitamin A --- RAR --- RXR --- ?-carotene --- ?-carotene --- ?-cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- lutein --- provitamin A --- retinol --- vitamin A --- breastfeeding --- new-born --- full-term mothers --- preterm mothers --- xanthophylls --- carotenes --- lutein --- colostrum --- mature milk --- ?-Cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- Caenorhabditis elegans --- fat reduction --- oxidative stress --- transcriptomic analysis --- metabolic syndrome --- aging --- prostate cancer --- tomato --- lycopene --- androgen --- cell culture --- animal --- obesity --- hippocampus --- nutrition --- overweight --- carotenoids --- Phaeodactylum tricornutum --- microalgae --- fucoxanthin --- eicosapentanoic acid --- obesity --- browning --- brown adipose tissue --- carotenes --- xanthophylls --- bioavailability --- intestine --- membrane transporters --- Vitamin A --- adipocyte --- ?-carotene oxygenase 1 --- hypertension --- carotenoids --- tomato extract --- lycopene --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- bioavailability --- glaucoma --- antioxidants --- oxidative stress --- macular pigment --- lutein --- colourless carotenoids --- cosmeceuticals --- functional foods --- nutraceuticals --- nutricosmetics --- photoprotection --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- public health --- nutrition --- chronic disease --- lutein --- zeaxanthin --- lycopene --- beta-carotene --- alpha-carotene --- beta-cryptoxanthin --- adipocytes --- adipose tissue --- brain --- carotenoids --- obesity --- retinoids --- carotenoids --- bioactive compounds

Advances in Food Analysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217427 / 9783039217434 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-743-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Topical Collection of Molecules provides the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis, confirming the growing public, academic, and industrial interest in this field. The articles broach topics related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with the characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients, and other biomolecules. It offers the latest updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, effects of processing, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers. Nowadays, the increasing awareness of the close relation among diet, health, and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real time.

Keywords

cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- reduced graphene oxide --- modified electrode --- sunset yellow --- second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry --- clenbuterol --- systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment --- real-time quantitative PCR --- high-throughput sequencing technology --- aptamers --- gold nanoparticles biosensor --- carbamates --- multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) --- enhanced product ion (EPI) --- mass fragmentation --- confirmatory method --- pesticide residues --- Croatian wines --- biogenic amines --- HPLC --- geographical origin --- polyelectrolyte composite film --- nitrite detection --- differential pulse voltammetry --- cyclic voltammetry --- mycotoxin --- dimerization --- HRMS --- NMR --- fruit jams --- food security --- phenolic acids --- quercetin --- agro-biodiversity --- HPLC fingerprint --- Polygonatum cyrtonema --- saccharides --- oligosaccharides --- fructose --- HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS --- steaming --- essential oil --- extraction techniques --- hops extracts --- hydrodistillation --- Marynka strain --- microwave-assisted hydrodistillation --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- microwave-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis --- phenolic compounds --- Chia seed oil --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- antioxidant --- lipid-lowering effect --- collagen peptide --- HPLC fingerprint --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- spectrum-effect relationship --- amino acids --- carbohydrates --- acidity --- polarity --- molecular weight --- Tricholoma matsutake --- Pol gene --- qualitative and quantitative PCR --- DNA extraction --- ?-blockers --- metabolites --- milk powder --- Q-Orbitrap --- rosé wines --- white wines --- bottle aging --- flavor profile --- closures --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- ultrasound-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis L. --- phenolic compounds --- food safety --- kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) --- molecular identification --- phylogeny --- DNA barcode --- hard clams --- Meretrix lyrata --- lipid classes --- fatty acids --- phospholipids --- molecular species of phospholipid --- high resolution mass spectrometry --- impedimetric aptasensor --- screen-printed interface --- bifunctional polymer arms --- PAT detection --- apple juice --- chiral --- chiral stationary phases --- enantiomers --- food --- review --- Piper methysticum (kava) --- kavalactones --- flavokavains --- UHPLC-UV --- mass spectra --- isomerization --- single-laboratory validation --- quality control --- Lactarius deliciosus --- chemical composition --- antioxidant --- antihyperglycemic --- ?13C-IRMS --- fatty acids composition --- 1H-NMR --- walnut varieties --- poultry eggs --- thiamphenicol --- florfenicol --- florfenicol amine --- ASE --- UPLC-FLD --- Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) --- fermentation --- conversion --- ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- microalgae --- Scenedesmus --- supercritical fluid extraction --- carotenoids --- fat-soluble vitamins --- antioxidants --- fruit juice --- blends --- adulteration --- 1H NMR --- PLS --- chemometrics --- natural mature honey --- immature honey --- chemometric analysis --- multi-physicochemical parameters --- food quality --- IMS --- food composition --- food process control --- food authentication --- food adulteration --- food safety --- antibiotics --- liquid chromatography mass spectrometry --- milk --- muscle --- validation

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