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MEMS Technology for Biomedical Imaging Applications

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ISBN: 9783039216048 / 9783039216055 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-605-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biomedical imaging is the key technique and process to create informative images of the human body or other organic structures for clinical purposes or medical science. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has demonstrated enormous potential in biomedical imaging applications due to its outstanding advantages of, for instance, miniaturization, high speed, higher resolution, and convenience of batch fabrication. There are many advancements and breakthroughs developing in the academic community, and there are a few challenges raised accordingly upon the designs, structures, fabrication, integration, and applications of MEMS for all kinds of biomedical imaging. This Special Issue aims to collate and showcase research papers, short commutations, perspectives, and insightful review articles from esteemed colleagues that demonstrate: (1) original works on the topic of MEMS components or devices based on various kinds of mechanisms for biomedical imaging; and (2) new developments and potentials of applying MEMS technology of any kind in biomedical imaging. The objective of this special session is to provide insightful information regarding the technological advancements for the researchers in the community.

Keywords

tilted microcoil --- electromagnetically-driven --- surface micromachining --- polyimide capillary --- MEMS --- ego-motion estimation --- indoor navigation --- monocular camera --- scale ambiguity --- wearable sensors --- photoacoustic --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- miniaturized microscope --- lead-free piezoelectric materials --- high frequency ultrasonic transducer --- needle-type --- high spatial resolution --- ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer --- Si lens --- tight focus --- finite element simulation --- low noise amplifier (LNA) --- noise figure --- smart hydrogels --- bio-sensors --- chemo-sensor --- electrochemical sensors --- transduction techniques --- near-field microwave --- microwave resonator --- microwave remote sensing --- potentiometric sensor --- gold nanoparticles --- metal oxide field-effect transistor --- chemo-FET --- bio-FET --- photoacoustic imaging --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- MEMS scanning mirror --- micromachined US transducer --- microring resonator --- acoustic delay line --- MEMS mirror --- Lissajous scanning --- pseudo-resonant --- sensing --- imaging --- display --- MEMS actuators --- microendoscopy --- confocal --- two-photon --- wide-filed imaging --- photoacoustic --- fluorescence --- scanner --- capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) --- acoustics --- micromachining --- capacitive --- transducer --- modelling --- fabrication --- 3D Printing --- piezoelectric array --- ultrasonic transducer --- ultrasonic imaging --- micro-optics --- bioimaging --- microtechnology --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- in vitro --- in vivo --- cantilever waveguide --- electrostatic actuator --- non-resonating scanner --- optical scanner --- push-pull actuator --- rib waveguide --- n/a

Computational Aerodynamic Modeling of Aerospace Vehicles

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ISBN: 9783038976103 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-611-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Currently, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions is considered as the state-of-the-art in the modeling of unsteady nonlinear flow physics and offers an early and improved understanding of air vehicle aerodynamics and stability and control characteristics. This Special Issue covers recent computational efforts on simulation of aerospace vehicles including fighter aircraft, rotorcraft, propeller driven vehicles, unmanned vehicle, projectiles, and air drop configurations. The complex flow physics of these configurations pose significant challenges in CFD modeling. Some of these challenges include prediction of vortical flows and shock waves, rapid maneuvering aircraft with fast moving control surfaces, and interactions between propellers and wing, fluid and structure, boundary layer and shock waves. Additional topic of interest in this Special Issue is the use of CFD tools in aircraft design and flight mechanics. The problem with these applications is the computational cost involved, particularly if this is viewed as a brute-force calculation of vehicle’s aerodynamics through its flight envelope. To make progress in routinely using of CFD in aircraft design, methods based on sampling, model updating and system identification should be considered.

Keywords

wake --- bluff body --- square cylinder --- DDES --- URANS --- turbulence model --- large eddy simulation --- Taylor–Green vortex --- numerical dissipation --- modified equation analysis --- truncation error --- MUSCL --- dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model --- kinetic energy dissipation --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- microfluidics --- numerical methods --- gasdynamics --- shock-channel --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG–FEM) --- fluid mechanics --- characteristics-based scheme --- multi-directional --- Riemann solver --- Godunov method --- bifurcation --- wind tunnel --- neural networks --- modeling --- unsteady aerodynamic characteristics --- high angles of attack --- hypersonic --- wake --- chemistry --- slender-body --- angle of attack --- detection --- after-body --- S-duct diffuser --- flow distortion --- flow control --- vortex generators --- aeroelasticity --- reduced-order model --- flutter --- wind gust responses --- computational fluid dynamics --- convolution integral --- sharp-edge gust --- reduced order aerodynamic model --- geometry --- meshing --- aerodynamics --- CPACS --- MDO --- VLM --- Euler --- CFD --- variable fidelity --- multi-fidelity --- aerodynamic performance --- formation --- VLM --- RANS --- hybrid reduced-order model --- quasi-analytical --- aeroelasticity --- flexible wings --- subsonic --- wing–propeller aerodynamic interaction --- p-factor --- installed propeller --- overset grid approach

Development of CMOS-MEMS/NEMS Devices

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210688 / 9783039210695 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-069-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Micro and nano-electro-mechanical system (M/NEMS) devices constitute key technological building blocks to enable increased additional functionalities within Integrated Circuits (ICs) in the More-Than-Moore era, as described in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The CMOS ICs and M/NEMS dies can be combined in the same package (SiP), or integrated within a single chip (SoC). In the SoC approach the M/NEMS devices are monolithically integrated together with CMOS circuitry allowing the development of compact and low-cost CMOS-M/NEMS devices for multiple applications (physical sensors, chemical sensors, biosensors, actuators, energy actuators, filters, mechanical relays, and others). On-chip CMOS electronics integration can overcome limitations related to the extremely low-level signals in sub-micrometer and nanometer scale electromechanical transducers enabling novel breakthrough applications. This Special Issue aims to gather high quality research contributions dealing with MEMS and NEMS devices monolithically integrated with CMOS, independently of the final application and fabrication approach adopted (MEMS-first, interleaved MEMS, MEMS-last or others).]

MEMS Accelerometers

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038974147 / 9783038974154 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-415-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices are widely used for inertia, pressure, and ultrasound sensing applications. Research on integrated MEMS technology has undergone extensive development driven by the requirements of a compact footprint, low cost, and increased functionality. Accelerometers are among the most widely used sensors implemented in MEMS technology. MEMS accelerometers are showing a growing presence in almost all industries ranging from automotive to medical. A traditional MEMS accelerometer employs a proof mass suspended to springs, which displaces in response to an external acceleration. A single proof mass can be used for one- or multi-axis sensing. A variety of transduction mechanisms have been used to detect the displacement. They include capacitive, piezoelectric, thermal, tunneling, and optical mechanisms. Capacitive accelerometers are widely used due to their DC measurement interface, thermal stability, reliability, and low cost. However, they are sensitive to electromagnetic field interferences and have poor performance for high-end applications (e.g., precise attitude control for the satellite). Over the past three decades, steady progress has been made in the area of optical accelerometers for high-performance and high-sensitivity applications but several challenges are still to be tackled by researchers and engineers to fully realize opto-mechanical accelerometers, such as chip-scale integration, scaling, low bandwidth, etc.

Keywords

low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) --- capacitive accelerometer --- wireless --- process optimization --- performance characterization --- MEMS accelerometer --- mismatch of parasitic capacitance --- electrostatic stiffness --- high acceleration sensor --- piezoresistive effect --- MEMS --- micro machining --- turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate --- probe --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) piezoresistive sensor chip --- Taguchi method --- marine environmental monitoring --- accelerometer --- frequency --- acceleration --- heat convection --- motion analysis --- auto-encoder --- dance classification --- deep learning --- self-coaching --- wavelet packet --- classification of horse gaits --- MEMS sensors --- gait analysis --- rehabilitation assessment --- body sensor network --- MEMS accelerometer --- electromechanical delta-sigma --- built-in self-test --- in situ self-testing --- digital resonator --- accelerometer --- activity monitoring --- regularity of activity --- sleep time duration detection --- indoor positioning --- WiFi-RSSI radio map --- MEMS-IMU accelerometer --- zero-velocity update --- step detection --- stride length estimation --- field emission --- hybrid integrated --- vacuum microelectronic --- cathode tips array --- interface ASIC --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- delaying mechanism --- safety and arming system --- accelerometer --- multi-axis sensing --- capacitive transduction --- inertial sensors --- three-axis accelerometer --- micromachining --- miniaturization --- stereo visual-inertial odometry --- fault tolerant --- hostile environment --- MEMS-IMU --- mode splitting --- Kerr noise --- angular-rate sensing --- whispering-gallery-mode --- optical microresonator --- three-axis acceleration sensor --- MEMS technology --- sensitivity --- L-shaped beam --- n/a

Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213191 / 9783039213207 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-320-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Neural electrodes enable the recording and stimulation of bioelectrical activity in the nervous system. This technology provides neuroscientists with the means to probe the functionality of neural circuitry in both health and disease. In addition, neural electrodes can deliver therapeutic stimulation for the relief of debilitating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and may serve as the basis for the restoration of sensory perception through peripheral nerve and brain regions after disease or injury. Lastly, microscale neural electrodes recording signals associated with volitional movement in paralyzed individuals can be decoded for controlling external devices and prosthetic limbs or driving the stimulation of paralyzed muscles for functional movements. In spite of the promise of neural electrodes for a range of applications, chronic performance remains a goal for long-term basic science studies, as well as clinical applications. New perspectives and opportunities from fields including tissue biomechanics, materials science, and biological mechanisms of inflammation and neurodegeneration are critical to advances in neural electrode technology. This Special Issue will address the state-of-the-art knowledge and emerging opportunities for the development and demonstration of advanced neural electrodes.

Keywords

neural interface --- silicon carbide --- robust microelectrode --- microelectrode array --- liquid crystal elastomer --- neuronal recordings --- neural interfacing --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies --- microelectromechanical systems --- neuroscientific research --- magnetic coupling --- freely-behaving --- microelectrodes --- in vivo electrophysiology --- neural interfaces --- enteric nervous system --- conscious recording --- electrode implantation --- intracranial electrodes --- foreign body reaction --- electrode degradation --- glial encapsulation --- electrode array --- microelectrodes --- neural recording --- silicon probe --- three-dimensional --- electroless plating --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- stiffness --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface response --- neural interface --- micromachine --- neuroscience --- biocompatibility --- training --- education --- diversity --- bias --- BRAIN Initiative --- multi-disciplinary --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) --- n/a --- silicon neural probes --- LED chip --- thermoresistance --- temperature monitoring --- optogenetics --- microfluidic device --- chronic implantation --- gene modification --- neural recording --- neural amplifier --- microelectrode array --- intracortical --- sensor interface --- windowed integration sampling --- mixed-signal feedback --- multiplexing --- amorphous silicon carbide --- neural stimulation and recording --- insertion force --- microelectrodes --- neural interfaces --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- shape-memory-polymer --- electrophysiology --- electrode --- artifact --- electrophysiology --- electrochemistry --- fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) --- neurotechnology --- neural interface --- neuromodulation --- neuroprosthetics --- brain-machine interfaces --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- softening --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface --- shape memory polymer --- deep brain stimulation --- fast scan cyclic voltammetry --- dopamine --- glassy carbon electrode --- magnetic resonance imaging --- system-on-chip --- neuromodulation --- bidirectional --- closed-loop --- sciatic nerve --- vagus nerve --- precision medicine --- neural probe --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- bio-inspired --- polymer nanocomposite --- cellulose nanocrystals --- photolithography --- Parylene C --- impedance --- Utah electrode arrays --- electrode–tissue interface --- peripheral nerves --- wireless --- implantable --- microstimulators --- neuromodulation --- peripheral nerve stimulation --- neural prostheses --- microelectrode --- neural interfaces --- dextran --- neural probe --- microfabrication --- foreign body reaction --- immunohistochemistry --- polymer --- chronic --- electrocorticography --- ECoG --- micro-electrocorticography --- µECoG --- neural electrode array --- neural interfaces --- electrophysiology --- brain–computer interface --- in vivo imaging --- tissue response --- graphene --- n/a

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