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Brain and Human Body Modeling

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783030212933 Year: Pages: 402 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21293-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:08
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This open access book describes modern applications of computational human modeling with specific emphasis in the areas of neurology and neuroelectromagnetics, depression and cancer treatments, radio-frequency studies and wireless communications. Special consideration is also given to the use of human modeling to the computational assessment of relevant regulatory and safety requirements. Readers working on applications that may expose human subjects to electromagnetic radiation will benefit from this book’s coverage of the latest developments in computational modelling and human phantom development to assess a given technology’s safety and efficacy in a timely manner. Describes construction and application of computational human models including anatomically detailed and subject specific models; Explains new practices in computational human modeling for neuroelectromagnetics, electromagnetic safety, and exposure evaluations; Includes a survey of modern applications for which computational human models are critical; Describes cellular-level interactions between the human body and electromagnetic fields.

Surface wave driven molecular low pressure plasmas for general lighting

Book Series: Spektrum der Lichttechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut ISSN: 21951152 ISBN: 9783731504641 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: X, 282 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051323 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
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Nowadays, compact fluorescent lamps are widely-used in general lighting applications. However, they still struggle with acceptance problems due to the hazardous mercury, which serves as the radiant component inside the lamp. The presented work deals with the development of a mercury-free, electrodeless, low pressure plasma based on a molecular filling and driven by microwaves, which may represent a viable alternative to the conventional CFLs.

One-Dimensional Tunable Josephson Metamaterials

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731502715 Year: Volume: 14 Pages: II, 140 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043318 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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This thesis presents a novel approach to the experimental realization of tunable, superconducting metamaterials. Therefore, conventional resonant meta-atoms are replaced by meta-atoms that contain Josephson junctions, which renders their resonance frequency tunable by an external magnetic field. This tunability is theoretically and experimentally investigated in one-dimensional magnetic and electric metamaterials. For the magnetic metamaterial, the effective, magnetic permeability is determined.

Microwave Indices from Active and Passive Sensors for Remote Sensing Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978206 / 9783038978213 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-821-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Past research has comprehensively assessed the capabilities of satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies, both active (SAR, scatterometers) and passive (radiometers), for the remote sensing of Earth’s surface. Besides brightness temperature and backscattering coefficient, microwave indices, defined as a combination of data collected at different frequencies and polarizations, revealed a good sensitivity to hydrological cycle parameters such as surface soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow depth and its water equivalent. The differences between microwave backscattering and emission at more frequencies and polarizations have been well established in relation to these parameters, enabling operational retrieval algorithms based on microwave indices to be developed. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of microwave signal capabilities in estimating the main land parameters of the hydrological cycle, e.g., soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow water equivalent, on both local and global scales, with a particular focus on the applications of microwave indices.

Catalytic, Photocatalytic and Electrocatalytic Processes for the Valorisation of CO2

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ISBN: 9783039217786 / 9783039217793 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-779-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Increasing attention is being paid to the development of effective technologies for the sequestration of CO2 and its storage. Hopefully, this will result in processes that can lead to its valorisation as a chemical, e.g., for the regeneration of fuels, but also for the production of intermediates. These are usually energy demands and rather slow processes, requiring energy input and catalysts. Some examples are the innovative strategies for the hydrogenation, photoconversion, or electroreduction of carbon dioxide. This book collects original research papers, reviews, and commentaries focused on the challenges related to the valorisation and conversion of CO2.

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

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ISBN: 9783039213290 / 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

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