Search results: Found 17

Listing 1 - 10 of 17 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

Quantifying the Unknown

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202591045 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.81 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-20 11:21:20
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"Copper, zinc, gold and silver mineralizations exist on the deep ocean floor, at great depths, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen. None of these mineralizations within Norwegian jurisdiction have been thoroughly investigated yet, but they are likely to contain significant amounts of minerals and metals crucial to society and the ‘Green Shift’.&#xD;&#xD;Should these mineralizations, which contain minerals and metals that you and I use every day, be developed and mined? The question is premature: we need to know more before we can answer it. We need to know more about the formation, location and characteristics of these potential deposits, as well as the environmental, social and financial consequences of potential extraction. We need to evaluate mining alternatives and how to process the extracted ore. How should we answer this question? The ultimate decisions will be determined politically, and knowledge will be the defining factor. Knowledge gained from proper mineral resource management.&#xD;&#xD;Quantifying the Unknown sets out to estimate the amount of minerals and metals on the deep ocean floor along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, in particular, copper, zinc, gold and silver contained in so-called ‘seafloor massive sulphide deposits’. These deposits are modern analogues of those mined worldwide on land today. The method used to quantify the amounts of these resources is known as ‘play analysis’. It shares aspects of methodologies used on land for similar purposes and has been employed extensively to assess untapped petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Play analysis enables a quantification of the potential as well as associated uncertainty.&#xD;&#xD;The potential is large, but the uncertainty is also significant. Whether and how this potential is realized remains to be seen."&#xD;

New Insights in Stability, Structure and Properties of Porous Materials

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038424512 9783038424505 Year: Pages: VIII, 136 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-14 08:13:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Porous materials (such as zeolites, clay minerals, and assemblies of oxide nanoparticles) are of great importance for the progress of many technological and environmental fields, such as catalysis, adsorption, separation, and ion exchange, because of their unique pore topologies, tunable structures, and the possibility of introducing active reaction sites.The major goal of this Special Issue was to provide a platform for scientists to discuss new insights in the stability, structure, and properties of porous materials, as well as in innovative aspects of their processing and applications. The emphasis was given as the relationships between the structure and/or chemical composition and the specific physical properties of these materials, as well as their role in mineralogical, technological, green, and sustainable processes. In this Special Issue of Minerals, we provide an up-to-date selection of high-quality original and review papers concerning the physical, chemical, and structural characterization of porous materials, the synthesis of crystalline phases with pores in the appropriate range, structure–property relationships at ambient conditions, but also at high temperatures and/or at high pressures, adsorption, and diffusion of mobile species in porous materials, host–guest interactions and confinement effects, ion exchange, modeling in geological and environmental processes, and new insights in processing and applications. In total, eight topical contributions reflect both the diversity and interdisciplinary of modern mineralogy, bridging together experimentalists and computational approaches.

Deep Carbon in Earth: Early Career Scientist Contributions to the Deep Carbon Observatory

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453634 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography --- Chemistry (General) --- Microbiology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Since its inception, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) has coalesced a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers focused on understanding and quantifying Earth’s deep carbon budget. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and understanding carbon chemistry under a variety of environmental conditions impacts all aspects of planetary sciences, including planet formation, the form and function of planetary interiors, and the origin and diversity of life. DCO recognizes that is integrating and promoting the contributions of early career scientists are integral to the advancement of knowledge regarding the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth’s deep carbon through field, experimental, analytical, and computational research. Early career scientists represent the future of deep carbon science and contribute substantially to ongoing research by implementing innovative ideas, challenging traditional working schemes, and bringing a globally interconnected perspective to the scientific community. This research topic highlights the contributions at the forefront of deep carbon research by DCO Early Career Scientist community. The manuscripts of this Frontiers e-volume bear evidence of the rapid advances in deep carbon science, and highlights the importance of approaching this field from a plethora of different angles integrating disciplines as diverse as mineralogy, geochemistry and microbiology. This integration is fundamental in understanding the movements and transformations of carbon across its deep cycle.

Selection strategy and modification of layer silicates for technical applications

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher mineralogische und geochemische Hefte : Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Mineralogie und Geochemie ISSN: 16182677 ISBN: 9783866443525 Year: Volume: 36 Pages: VIII, 258 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000010748 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In this study, samples were selected with respect to their layer charge and morphology. Sixteen bulk materials were pre-selected, which contained either swellable clay minerals or non-swelling clay minerals. One topic of this work was a comprehensive determination of layer and edge charge and exchange properties of clay minerals. A further topic in this study concerned the modification of swellable and non-swelling clay minerals with mineral acids, e.g., HCl and H2SO4.

Current Topics in the Utilization of Clay in Industrial and Medical Applications

Author:
ISBN: 9781789237283 9781789237290 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71295 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book presents recent developments and research activities that highlight the importance of clay science and engineering in the environment and medical and civil engineering. The book contains nine chapters separated into three main sections: (1) Clay for the Environment, (2) Clay in Civil Engineering, and (3) Clay in Medical Applications. There are four chapters in the first section and the focus is made on the topics related to an introduction to the natural sources and chemical structure of one of the important clay types, montmorillonite. The application of waste recycling and the removal of arsenic and fluoride are the focus of next two chapters. In addition, a technique for corrosion protection is presented as the fourth chapter within this section. In the second section, special emphasis has been placed on the importance and application of clay in civil engineering, which is demonstrated in two chapters. In the third section, new research and development on utilizing clay minerals in medical applications is presented. Intended for readers wishing to acquire an understanding of the current trends in clay science and engineering and comprehension of the issue, this book addresses exciting topics in this field.

Clay Minerals in Nature - Their Characterization, Modification and Application

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535107385 9789535142775 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.5772/2708 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Clay is an abundant raw material which has a variety of uses and properties depending on their structure and composition. Clay minerals are inexpensive and environmentally friendly naturally occurring nanomaterials, thanks to their 1 nm thick silicate layers, in all types of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The book chapters have been classified according to their characteristics in topics and applications. Therefore, in the first section five chapters is dedicated to the characterization and utilization of clay minerals in deposits. The second section includes four chapters about the significance of clay minerals in soils. Third section is devoted to different aspects of clay minerals research, especially to the characterization of structure and modifications for their application.

Mutation Breeding in Chickpea: Perspectives and Prospects for Food Security

Author:
ISBN: 9788376560717 9783110374254 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560717 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Botany --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:29:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The book by M. Imran Kozgar aims to cover the problems of mutation breeding in pulse crops in the light of issues related to food insecurity and malnutrition, which according to FAO are the major threats at the present time. So far the research on induction of mutation in pulse crops is negligible compared to cereal crops, though the pulse crops and especially the chickpea are the largest grown crops in India. The main objective of the book is to reveal and explore the possibility of inducing genetic variability in early generations of mutated chickpea, describe the positive aspects of mutagenic treatments, evaluate the content of mineral elements (iron, manganese, zinc and copper) and physiological parameters of isolated high yielding mutant lines. The author hopes that his book will help to advance studies on pulse crops, and that in the long term it will help to reduce the food insecurity and malnutrition problems presently persisting in various developing countries, including India.

New Results and Advances in PGE Mineralogy in Ni-Cu-Cr-PGE Ore Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217168 / 9783039217175 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-717-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The book (Special Issue) presents impressive new results related to a wide spectrum of occurrences of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and natural compounds enriched in platinum-group elements (PGE), which are associated with various complexes and deposits, such as Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes, layered intrusions and placers. The geographical locations of the involved deposits and complexes include, on a truly international scale, different areas of the Urals, Western and Eastern Sayans and Gornaya Shoria in Siberia, Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in China, Northern Michigan, USA, South Africa and Zimbabwe, etc. Of particular interest is the first description of a new species of PGM, thalhammerite (approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association), which is a new species of palladium-silver sulfobismuthide discovered in the Noril’sk region of Russia. Additionally, comprehensive reviews, on compositional variations in Pt–Fe alloy minerals and processes of transformations of PGM in exogenic environments, are presented which will also attract attention from international readers.

Keywords

platinum-group elements --- platinum-group minerals --- PGE alloys --- chromian spinel --- schemes of substitution --- Ti- and REE-rich inclusions --- Sisim placer zone --- Lysanskiy complex --- Eastern Sayans --- Russia --- platinum-group elements --- gold --- platinum-group minerals --- placer deposits --- ophiolite complexes --- western Sayans --- Russia --- thalhammerite --- platinum-group mineral --- Pd9Ag2Bi2S4 phase --- reflectance data --- X-ray-diffraction data --- crystal structure --- Komsomolsky mine --- Talnakh deposit --- Noril’sk region --- Russia --- chromitite --- platinum group minerals --- primary inclusions --- ophiolite --- Alaskan-type complex. --- Urals --- Russia --- Alaskan-type complex --- Central Asian Orogenic Belt --- PGM --- PGE mineralization --- Bushveld Complex --- South Africa --- Great Dyke --- Zimbabwe --- platinum-group minerals --- primary ores --- oxide ores --- placers --- allogenic --- authigenic --- Echo Lake --- Midcontinent --- palladium --- platinum --- magnetite --- gabbro --- platinum-group elements --- platinum-group minerals --- Pt–Fe alloys --- compositional variations --- element substitutions --- placer deposits --- ore mineralization --- ultramafic-mafic complexes --- Ural Platinum belt --- Ural-Alaskan massif --- Svetloborsky massif --- placer system --- platinum group elements --- platinum group minerals --- platiniferous tetra-auricupride --- Pt-for-Au substitution --- platinum --- gold --- ophiolite --- Bolshoy Khailyk placer --- western Sayans --- Russia --- platinum-group elements --- gold --- platinum-group minerals --- placer deposits --- micrometric inclusions --- Gornaya Shoria --- Siberia --- Russia --- n/a

Mineral Fibres

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211449 / 9783039211456 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-145-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) and asbestos containing materials (ACMs) as a source of possible environmental risk. A crucial theme of interest related to environmental pollution is the enhanced mobilization of asbestos minerals affecting soils and rocks due to human activities (e.g., road construction, mining activity) in comparison with natural weathering processes. The volume has aimed to gather contributions and to compare results derived from various experiences of research groups regarding NOA minerals as a source of possible environmental risks for population. Case studies from various geological contexts are presented. Moreover, contributions presenting novel and classical approaches for ACM inertization and recycling, together with possible solutions for reducing asbestos exposure, has been also presented.

Listing 1 - 10 of 17 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
-->