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Ion Transport in Chloroplast and Mitochondria Physiology in Green Organisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451104 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-110-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Chloroplasts and mitochondria both have a prokaryotic origin, carry essential genes on their own highly reduced genome and generate energy in the form of ATP for the plant cell. The ion composition and concentration in these bioenergetic organelles impact photosynthesis, respiration and stress responses in plants. Early electrophysiological and biochemical studies provided strong evidence for the presence of ion channels and ion transporters in chloroplast and mitochondrial membranes. However, it wasn’t until the last decade that the development of model organisms such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with improved genetic tools to study cell physiolgy have led to the discovery of several genes encoding for ion transport proteins in chloroplasts and mitochondria. For the first time, these discoveries have enabled detailed studies on the essential physiological function of the organellar ion flux. This Research Topic welcomed updated overviews and comprehensive investigations on already identified and novel ion transport components involved in physiology of chloroplasts and mitochondria in green organisms.

Metabolic Adaptation to Cell Growth and Proliferation in Normal and Pathological Conditions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454846 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-484-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Proliferating cells must adapt their metabolism to fulfill the increased requirements for energy demands and biosynthetic intermediates. This adaptation is particularly relevant in cancer, where sustained rapid proliferation combined with the harsh conditions of the tumor microenvironment represent a major metabolic challenge. Noteworthy, metabolic reprogramming is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. However, the one size fits all rarely applies to the metabolic rewiring occurring in cancer cells, which ultimately depends on the combination of several factors such as the tumor’s origin, the specific genetic alterations and the surrounding microenvironment. In the present Research Topic, we compile a series of articles that discuss different metabolic adaptations that proliferating cells undergo to sustain growth and division, as well as the potential therapeutic window to treat certain pathologies, with a special focus on cancer.

Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Genetics of Aging and Longevity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199266 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-926-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In this book, we present a collection of articles covering a wide range of current aging research and highlighting its prospects and future directions. These articles are based on or related to the topics of the 3rd International Conference «Genetics of aging and longevity». The Conference took place 6-10 April, 2014 in Sochi, the city located on the Black Sea coast near the Caucasian mountains, in Russia. Top gerontologists and geneticists from 31 countries around the world came together to discuss current problems in many areas related to the genetics of longevity and mechanisms of aging. We would like to thank those of them who contributed to this e-Book by sharing latest achievements, ideas and hypotheses. We hope that this e-Book will come to notice of scientists interested in the development of genetics of aging and longevity and in the search for life-beneficial environments and life-prolonging interventions.

Parkinson's Disease Cell Vulnerability and Disease Progression

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196760 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-676-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. The hallmark feature of this disease is the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and a consequent striatal dopamine deficiency. The pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease remains unclear. Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of Parkinson's Disease and the molecular pathways of cell death important questions remain regarding why are substantia nigra cells especially vulnerable, which mechanisms underlie progressive cell loss or what do Lewy bodies or alpha-synuclein reveal about disease progression. Understanding the different vulnerability of the dopaminergic neurons from midbrain regions and the mechanisms whereby pathology becomes widespread are primary objectives of basic and clinical research in Parkinson's Disease.This e-Book discusses the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease, presenting a series of papers that provide up-to-date, state-of-the-art information on molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the neurodegeneration process in the disease, the role of activation of functional anatomical organization of the basal ganglia and in particular habitual vs goal directed systems as a factor of neuronal vulnerability, the possibility that Parkinson's Disease coulb be a prion disease and how genetic factors linked to familial and sporadic forms of PD. We hope that this e-Book will stimulate the continuing efforts to understand the cell and physiological mechanisms underlying the origin of Parkinson's Disease.

Versatile roles of organelle outer membranes in intracellular communication

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196043 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-604-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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This topic covers emerging knowledge about the properties and functions of the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria. These outer membranes house various processes necessary for efficient communication and thus integration of the organelles with and into their surroundings in the cytoplasm. Such processes include, but are not limited to, protein import, organelle division, organelle movement, metabolism, and metabolite/ion transport. Recent molecular genetic, biochemical and cell biological studies have revealed functions of various outer membrane proteins. These findings have helped address and generate diverse biological and evolutionary questions at molecular, cellular and whole organism levels. The topic should encourage contributions of scientists from various disciplines and thus would provide the field with opportunities to "think outside the box" and to develop potential collaborations. The topic is also aimed to stimulate interests of general audience in the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria.

Mitochondria in Skeletal Muscle Health, Aging and Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450732 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-073-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.

Molecular Mechanisms and Physiological Significance of Organelle Interactions and Cooperation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451043 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-104-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Eukaryotic cells contain distinct membrane-bound organelles, which compartmentalise cellular proteins to fulfil a variety of vital functions. Many organelles have long been regarded as isolated and static entities (e.g., peroxisomes, mitochondria, lipid droplets), but it is now evident that they display dynamic changes, interact with each other, share certain proteins and show metabolic cooperation and cross-talk. Despite great advances in the identification and characterisation of essential components and molecular mechanisms associated with the biogenesis and function of organelles, information on how organelles interact and are incorporated into metabolic pathways and signaling networks is just beginning to emerge. Organelle cooperation requires sophisticated targeting systems which regulate the proper distribution of shared proteins to more than one organelle. Organelle motility and membrane remodeling support organelle interaction and contact. This contact can be mediated by membrane proteins residing on different organelles which can serve as molecular tethers to physically link different organelles together. They can also contribute to the exchange of metabolites and ions, or act in the assembly of signaling platforms. In this regard organelle communication events have been associated with important cellular functions such as apoptosis, antiviral defense, organelle division/biogenesis, ROS metabolism and signaling, and various metabolic pathways such as breakdown of fatty acids or cholesterol biosynthesis. In this research topic we will focus on recent novel findings on the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological significance of organelle interaction and cooperation with a particular focus on mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and lipid droplets and their impact on the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Our understanding of how organelles physically interact and use cellular signaling systems to coordinate functional networks between each other is still in its infancy. Nevertheless recent discoveries of defined membrane structures such as the mitochondria-ER associated membranes (MAM) are revealing how membrane domains enriched in specific proteins transmit signals across organelle boundaries, allowing one organelle to influence the function of another. In addition to its role as a mediator between mitochondria and the ER, contacts between the MAM and peroxisomes contribute to antiviral signaling, and specialised regions of the ER are supposed to initiate peroxisome biogenesis, whereas intimate contacts between peroxisomes, lipid droplets and the ER mediate lipid metabolism. In line with these observations it is tempting to speculate that further physical contact sites between other organelles exist. Alternatively, novel regulated vesicle trafficking pathways between organelles (e.g., mitochondria to peroxisomes or lysosomes) have been discovered implying another mode of organelle communication. Identifying the key molecular players of such specialised membrane structures will be a prerequisite to understand how organelle communication is physically accomplished and will lead to the identification of new regulatory networks. In addition to the direct transmission of interorganellar information, cytosolic messenger systems (e.g., kinase/phosphatase systems or redox signaling) may contribute to the coordination of organelle functions. This research topic will integrate new findings from both modes of communication and will provide new perspectives for the functional significance of cross-talk among organelles. We would like to thank all the researchers who contributed their valuable work to this research topic. Furthermore, we are grateful to the reviewers and Associate Editors who contributed valuable comments and positive criticism to improve the contributions.

Redox Regulation in Skeletal Muscle Aging and Exercise

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451968 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-196-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ of the human body and comprises about 40% of total body mass in humans. Even in people who ‘age well’, there is a noticeable loss of muscle strength and function that accelerates dramatically after the age of 60, a major factor in the reduction in life quality for the aging population. One of the most effective interventions to maintain muscle mass and function is through exercise. Skeletal muscle generates reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species in response to muscle contractions. The concentration and species of ROS/RNS generated can depend on the age and fitness of the individual, muscle fibre type and the intensity of the muscle contractions. ROS/RNS generate unique signaling cascades that are not only essential in skeletal muscle contraction and adaptation but also play a role in a wide array of cell processes including cell proliferation, protein synthesis/degradation, immune response and antioxidant defense. ROS/RNS generated by contractions are involved in a co-ordinated local response that is tightly controlled at all levels from generation to detoxification. This collection of original articles and reviews highlights investigations that measure different aspects of the redox response of skeletal muscle to aging and exercise.

The Metabolic-Inflammatory Axis in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452538 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-253-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Impairment of energy metabolism is a hallmark of brain aging and several neurodegenerative diseases, such as the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Age- and disease-related hypometabolism is commonly associated with oxidative stress and they are both regarded as major contributors to the decline in synaptic plasticity and cognition. Neuroinflammatory changes, entailing microglial activation and elevated expression of inflammatory cytokines, also correlate with age-related cognitive decline. It is still under debate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced metabolic deficits or the microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation is the initiator of the cognitive changes in aging and AD. Nevertheless, multiple lines of evidence support the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic inflammation exacerbate each other, and these mechanistic diversities have cellular redox dysregulation as a common denominator. This research topic focuses on the role of a metabolic-inflammatory axis encompassing the bioenergetic activity, brain inflammatory responses and their redox regulation in healthy brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Dynamic interactions among these systems are reviewed in terms of their causative or in-tandem occurrence and how the systemic environment, –e.g., insulin resistance, diabetes, and systemic inflammation–, impacts on brain function.

Circadian Rhythms and Metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452828 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-282-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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One of the major breakthroughs of the last decade in the understanding of energy homeostasis is the identification of a reciprocal control between circadian rhythmicity and cellular metabolism. Circadian rhythmicity is a fundamental endogenous process of almost every organism living on Earth. For instance, the alternation of hunger and satiety is not continuous over 24 h, but is instead structured in time along the light/dark cycle. In mammals, the temporal organization of metabolism, physiology and behavior around 24 h is controlled by a network of multiple cellular clocks, synchronized via neuronal and hormonal signals by a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. This central circadian conductor in the brain is mainly reset by ambient light perceived by the retina, while secondary circadian clocks in other brain areas and peripheral organs can be reset by meal timing. Chronic disruption of circadian rhythms, as seen in human shift-workers (up to 20% of the active population), has been associated with the development of a number of adverse mental and metabolic conditions. Understanding of the functional links between circadian desynchronization and overall health in animal models and humans, however, is still scarce. Interactions between circadian clocks and metabolism can occur at different levels: the molecular clockwork, internal synchronization via neuro-hormonal signals, or external synchronization via photic or feeding cues. This Research Topic comprises a number of reviews as well as research and methods articles that feature recent advancements in the mechanisms linking circadian clocks with energy metabolism, and the pathophysiological implications of these interactions for metabolic health.

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