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Mitochondria in Skeletal Muscle Health, Aging and Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450732 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-073-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Abstract

Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.

Molecular Research of Endometrial Pathophysiology

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214952 / 9783039214969 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-496-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Abstract

The endometrium has been the subject of intense research in a variety of clinical settings, because of its importance in the reproductive process and its role in women’s health. In the past 15 years, significant efforts have been invested in defining the molecular phenotype of the receptive phase endometrium as well as of various endometrial pathologies. Although this has generated a wealth of information on the molecular landscape of human endometrium, there is a need to complement this information in light of the novel methodologies and innovative technical approaches. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms of endometrium and endometrium-related disorders. The progress made in the molecular actions of steroids, in the metabolism of steroids and intracrinology, in endometrial intracellular pathways, in stem cells biology, as well as in the molecular alterations underlying endometrium-related pathologies has been the focus of the reviews and papers included.

Keywords

RANK --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- prognosis --- immunohistochemistry --- gene expression --- endometriosis --- developmental pathway --- pathogenomics --- mesenchymal stem cells --- endometrial cancer --- mtDNA mutations --- deficit of complex I --- antioxidant response --- mitochondrial biogenesis --- mitochondrial dynamics --- mitophagy --- miRNA --- lncRNAs --- endometrial cancer --- endometriosis --- chronic endometritis --- cell contacts --- tight junction --- adherens junction --- gap junction --- endometrium --- implantation --- decidualization --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- liquid biopsy --- uterine aspirate --- circulating tumour cells (CTCs) --- circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) --- exosomes --- Vitamin D --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- endometrial cancer --- preclinical models --- translational research --- endometrial cancer --- type II endometrial carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- kinase inhibitor --- molecular marker --- protein kinase --- protein phosphatase --- PP2A --- PPP2R1A --- SMAP --- endometriosis --- infertility --- niche --- inflammation --- immunomodulation --- mesenchymal stem cell --- orthoxenograft --- uterine cancer --- avatar --- murine models --- personalized medicine --- targeted therapy --- preclinical studies --- translational research --- endometriosis --- TRP channels --- endometrial stromal cells --- eutopic and ectopic endometrium --- endometrial cell --- pathway --- proliferation --- decidualization --- migration --- angiogenesis --- regeneration --- breakdown --- implantation --- endometrial cancer --- orthotopic xenograft model --- estrogen dependent --- bioluminescence imaging --- contrast-enhanced CT scan --- endometrium --- adult stem cells --- endometrial regeneration --- stem cell markers --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- decidualisation --- oestradiol --- aromatase --- testosterone --- dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- sulfatase --- endometriosis --- ectopic stroma --- microRNA --- small RNA sequencing --- EDN1 --- HOXA10 --- miR-139-5p --- miR-375 --- CTCF --- tumour suppressor gene --- haploinsufficiency --- zinc finger --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- cancer --- endometrial cancer --- gene editing --- phosphoinositide 3-kinase --- PIK3CA --- PIK3CB --- p110? --- p110? --- endometrial cancer --- LGR5 --- endometrium --- endometriosis --- menstrual cycle --- macrophages

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