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Code-switching Between Structural and Sociolinguistic Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783110346879 9783110343540 9783110383942 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.1515/9783110346879 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:07

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This volume brings together linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic perspectives on code-switching. Featuring new data from five continents and languages with a large range of linguistic affiliations, the contributions all address the role of social factors in determining the forms and outcomes of code-switching. This book is a significant addition to the empirical and theoretical foundations of the study of code-switching.

Passive Micromixers

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038970071 9783038970088 Year: Pages: VIII, 166 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-20 17:31:11
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Micro-total analysis systems and lab-on-a-chip platforms are widely used for sample preparation and analysis, drug delivery, and biological and chemical syntheses. A micromixer is an important component in these applications. Rapid and efficient mixing is a challenging task in the design and development of micromixers. The flow in micromixers is laminar, and, thus, the mixing is primarily dominated by diffusion. Recently, diverse techniques have been developed to promote mixing by enlarging the interfacial area between the fluids or by increasing the residential time of fluids in the micromixer. Based on their mixing mechanism, micromixers are classified into two types: active and passive. Passive micromixers are easy to fabricate and generally use geometry modification to cause chaotic advection or lamination to promote the mixing of the fluid samples, unlike active micromixers, which use moving parts or some external agitation/energy for the mixing. Many researchers have studied various geometries to design efficient passive micromixers. Recently, numerical optimization techniques based on computational fluid dynamic analysis have been proven to be efficient tools in the design of micromixers. The current Special Issue covers new mechanisms, design, numerical and/or experimental mixing analysis, and design optimization of various passive micromixers.

LED Farbmischung mit chaotischen Lichtleitern

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Book Series: Spektrum der Lichttechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut ISSN: 21951152 ISBN: 9783731504801 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: III, 216 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051748 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This book describes a systematical method to efficiently and homogeneously mix rays of different coloured Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in both the angular and spatial domain. The focus of this work is the application of chaotic billiard geometries on the cross section of a light guide. Such a chaotic light guide offers the possibility to achieve complete colour mixing according to deterministic chaos theory.

Process Simulation of Technical Precipitation Processes - The Influence of Mixing

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ISBN: 9783731507352 Year: Pages: XXIII, 209 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000076187 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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This work develops and shows up methods to tackle multi-scale challenges in particle formation during precipitation crystallization. Firstly, molecular, micro- and meso-scale interactions in confined impinging jet mixers are investigated and simulatively predicted. Secondly, to build up on developed methods, macroscale as present for instance in stirred tank reactors is added to the considerations.

Simulation of Turbulent Flows with and without Combustion with Emphasis on the Impact of Coherent Structures on the Turbulent Mixing

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ISBN: 9783731504085 Year: Pages: XXXI, 215 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047969 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The analysis of turbulent mixing in complex turbulent flows is a challenging task. The effective mixing of entrained fluids to a molecular level is a vital part of the dynamics of turbulent flows, especially when combustion is involved. The work has shown the limitations of the steady-state simulations and acknowledged the need of applying high-fidelity unsteady methods for the calculation of flows with pronounced unsteadiness promoted by large-scale coherent structures or other sources.

Multi-Color Laser Emission for the Generation of Ultrashort Optical Pulse

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ISBN: 9783038422822 Year: Pages: XXII, 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-17 12:33:00
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The pulse width of an electromagnetic wave is determined by the frequency band width of the wave used. Therefore, one femtosecond is the ultimate in pulse width for an “optical” wave. For this reason, several methods have been proposed for the generation of an ultrashort optical pulse. For example, resonance/non-resonance four-wave mixing would be one of the candidates for generating multi-color laser emission in an extremely wide spectral region, thus breaking the 1-fs barrier.To date, numerous emission lines have been generated from the deep-ultraviolet to the near-infrared region (<45,000 cm−1). Such generations use a variety of techniques, such as four-wave Raman mixing in molecular hydrogen. This type of technique is promising for the generation of 1-fs optical pulses via phase locking and the Fourier synthesis of the emission lines. For verification, it would be necessary to develop a new method for measuring the pulse width, since the spectral band width approaches, or is beyond one octave.Ultrashort optical pulses can be utilized in a variety of applications in science and technology. For example, an ultrashort optical pulse can be used in the studies of ultrafast phenomena. More practically, a laser pulse shorter than 100 fs is reported to be useful in mass spectrometry for observing a molecular ion of triacetone triperoxide, an explosive used in terrorist attacks. A train of ultrashort optical pulses in the terahertz region, which has been generated in the optical cavity to enhance the nonlinear optical effect, would be employed as a clock pulse in optical computation/communication in future advanced industries. Therefore, it is important to investigate a new frontier in the generation of multi-color laser emission for Fourier synthesis to generate ultrashort optical pulses and to clarify new trends in the state-of-the-art.

Morphology and Internal Mixing of Atmospheric Particles

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038971337 9783038971344 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-134-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-13 09:39:26
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The properties of atmospheric particles - often also termed aerosol - have been the subject of scientific studies for several decades because of their effects on air quality, health, visibility, propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere, and climate. However, despite intense research efforts, several knowledge gaps remain to be filled; the reason being related also to the complexity of the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles and of their dynamic interactions with the surrounding environment. One of the frontier topics in this scientific endeavor is the subject of this special issue: the morphology and mixing of atmospheric aerosol at the single particle level.

10 Análisis no-lineal de materiales compuestos mediante la teoría de mezclas serie-paralelo (Book chapter)

Book title: Aplicaciones avanzadas de los materiales compuestos en la obra civil y la edificación

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788494187292 Year: Pages: 25 Language: Spanish;
Publisher: OmniaScience Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 320815
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:55
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This chapter presents the theory of series-parallel mixtures. This is a formulation for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of composite materials, which&#xD;allows to obtain the non-linear behavior of the same from the behavior that&#xD;show their component materials. This formulation can be applied to both compounds&#xD;Laminates of carbon fibers as to more traditional composite materials&#xD;such as reinforced concrete. The validity of the submitted formulation will be tested&#xD;with the reproduction of a delamination test of a laminated composite. The advantage&#xD;of the series-parallel mixing theory versus other existing formulations for the calculation&#xD;of composite materials is that this is, today, the only one capable of taking into account the&#xD;non-linear behavior of the compounds with a computational cost that makes possible the&#xD;resolution of real structures.

Environmental Tracers

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ISBN: 9783906980911 9783906980928 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-92-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:33:29
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Aquifer resources continue to be overexploited, leaving the world's most impoverished (or vulnerable) populations and/or the aquatic environment at an ever increasing risk from climate change. Adaptation strategies demand detailed evaluation and management of water as a resource, requiring an understanding of the chemical, geological (hydrogeological/geohydrological) and biological interactions that waters effect or undergo in the hydrologic cycle. Environmental tracers are ambient natural or man-made compounds widely distributed in the Earth’s near-surface. They may be injected into the hydrological system from the atmosphere at recharge and/or are added/lost/exchanged inherently as waters flow over and through materials. Variations in their chemical abundances and isotopic compositions can be used as tracers to determine sources (provenance), pathways (of reaction or interaction) and also timescales (dating) of environmental processes. Water dating may invoke their characteristic decay or accumulation functions, (cf. radioactive and radiogenic compounds and isotopes) in a system or the characteristic injection of sources. Environmental tracers in groundwater systems can give information both on current and past flow conditions independently of hydraulic analyses and modelling. Thus, environmental tracers generically are important tools for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment.Recent overviews have highlighted how most environmental tracer systematics have become well-established through proof-of-concept studies in geochemically and hydraulically simple aquifers. The challenge now lies in enhancing the way they are put to use by the hydrologic community and water resource managers in more complex systems (e.g. inter- and intra-aquifer mixing; aquifers as distributed water systems – water coming in at one point is going somewhere, and pumping of water represents an interception) and how they may be used to address issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in water resource systems (including resource, flooding, drought, climate justice, water and food security, water footprints, etc.).

Feature Papers

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ISBN: 9783038420705 9783038420712 Year: Pages: X, 392 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 09:20:18
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This special issue contains the first papers of Processes and is intended to highlight a diverse set of topics related to process technology for the chemical, materials, biochemical, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. To enhance the impact of these industries on society, process innovation that allows large-scale manufacturing is essential for both established and emerging technologies. The scope of this special issue includes, but is not limited to: chemical and biochemical reaction processes: mixing, fluid processing and heat transfer systems; mass transfer, separation and purification processes; integrated process design and scale-up; and process modeling, simulation, optimization and control.

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