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3D City Models and urban information: Current issues and perspectives European COST Action TU0801

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ISBN: 9782759811533 Year: Language: English
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 12:07:25
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3D City Models and urban information: Current issues and perspectivesEuropean COST Action TU0801R. Billen, A.-F. Cutting-Decelle, O. Marina, J.-P. de Almeida, Caglioni M., G. Falquet, T. Leduc, C. Métral, G. Moreau, J. Perret, G. Rabin, R. San Jose, I. Yatskiv and S. ZlatanovaConsidering sustainable development of cities implies investigating cities in a holistic way taking into account many interrelations between various urban or environmental issues. 3D city models are increasingly used in different cities and countries for an intended wide range of applications beyond mere visualization. Could these 3D City models be used to integrate urban and environmental knowledge? How could they be improved to fulfill such role? We believe that enriching the semantics of current 3D city models, would extend their functionality and usability; therefore, they could serve as integration platforms of the knowledge related to urban and environmental issues allowing a huge and significant improvement of city sustainable management and development. But which elements need to be added to 3D city models? What are the most efficient ways to realize such improvement / enrichment? How to evaluate the usability of these improved 3D city models?These were the questions tackled by the COST Action TU0801 “Semantic enrichment of 3D city models for sustainable urban development”. This book gathers various materials developed all along the four year of the Action and the significant breakthroughs.

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City models

Land-Use Modelling in Planning Practice

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Book Series: GeoJournal Library ISBN: 9789400718210 Year: Volume: 101 Pages: XVI, 214 DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1822-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 23:10:10
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This book provides an overview of recent developments and applications of the Land Use Scanner model. Internationally recognized as among the best of its kind, this versatile model can be applied at a national level for trend extrapolation, scenario studies and optimization, yet can also be employed in a smaller-scale regional context. Alongside these practical examples from the Netherlands, readers will find discussion of more theoretical aspects of land-use models as well as an assessment of various studies that aim to develop the Land-Use Scanner model further. Spanning the divide between the abstractions of land-use modelling and the imperatives of policy making, this is a cutting-edge account of the way in which the Land-Use Scanner approach is able to interrogate a spectrum of issues that range from climate change to transportation efficiency. Aimed at planners, researchers and policy makers who need to stay abreast of the latest advances in land-use modelling techniques in the context of planning practice, the book guides the reader through the applications supported by current instrumentation. It affords the opportunity for a wide readership to benefit from the extensive and acknowledged expertise of Dutch planners, who have originated a host of much-used models.

Keywords

land-use models --- geography

Systems Biology Approaches to Understanding the Cause and Treatment of Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192496 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-249-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Development of powerful new high- throughput technologies for probing the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome is driving the rapid acquisition of information on the function of molecular systems. The importance of these achievements cannot be understated - they have transformed the nature of both biology and medicine. Despite this dramatic progress, one of the greatest challenges that continues to confront modern biology is to understand how behavior at the level of genome, proteome and metabolome determines physiological function at the level of cell, tissue and organ in both health and disease. Because of the inherent complexity of biological systems, the development, analysis, and validation of integrative computational models based directly on experimental data is necessary to achieve this understanding. This approach, known as systems biology, integrates computational and experimental approaches through iterative development of mathematical models and experimental validation and testing. The combination of these approaches allows for a mechanistic understanding of the function of complex biological systems in health and their dysfunction in disease. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has recognized the importance of the systems biology approach for understanding normal physiology and perturbations associated with heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases and disorders. In 2006, NHLBI announced the Exploratory Program in Systems Biology, followed in 2010 by the NHLBI Systems Biology Collaborations. The goal of these programs is to support collaborative teams of investigators in using experimental and computational strategies to integrate the component parts of biological networks and pathways into computational models that are based firmly on and validated using experimental data. These validated models are then applied to gain insights into the mechanisms of altered system function in disease, to generate novel hypotheses regarding these mechanisms that can be tested experimentally, and to then use the results of experiments to refine the models. The purpose of this Research Topic is to present the range of innovative, new approaches being developed by investigators working in areas of systems biology that couple experimental and modeling studies to understand the cause and possible treatment of heart, lung, blood and sleep diseases and disorders. This Research Topic will be of great interest to the cardiovascular research community as well as to the general community of systems biologists.

Water Resources in a Variable and Changing Climate

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ISBN: 9783038420835 9783038420828 Year: Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-05 14:58:28
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Climate change will bring about significant changes to the capacity of, and the demand on, water resources. The resulting changes include increasing climate variability that is expected to affect hydrologic conditions. The effects of climate variability on various meteorological variables have been extensively observed in many regions around the world. Atmospheric circulation, topography, land use and other regional features modify global changes to produce unique patterns of change at the regional scale. As the future changes to these water resources cannot be measured in the present, hydrological models are critical in the planning required to adapt our water resource management strategies to future climate conditions. Such models include catchment runoff models, reservoir management models, flood prediction models, groundwater recharge and flow models, and crop water balance models. In water-scarce regions such as Australia, urban water systems are particularly vulnerable to rapid population growth and climate change. In the presence of climate change induced uncertainty, urban water systems need to be more resilient and multi-sourced. Decreasing volumetric rainfall trends have an effect on reservoir yield and operation practices. Severe intensity rainfall events can cause failure of drainage system capacity and subsequent urban flood inundation problems. Policy makers, end users and leading researchers need to work together to develop a consistent approach to interpreting the effects of climate variability and change on water resources.This Special Edition includes papers by international experts who have investigated climate change impacts on a variety of systems including irrigation and water markets, land use changes and vegetation growth, lake water levels and quality and sea level rises. These investigations have been conducted in many regions of the world including the USA, China, East Africa, Australia, Taiwan and the Sultanate of Oman.

What levels of explanation in the behavioural sciences?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195978 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-597-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Complex systems are to be seen as typically having multiple levels of organization. For instance, in the behavioural and cognitive sciences, there has been a long lasting trend, promoted by the seminal work of David Marr, putting focus on three distinct levels of analysis: the computational level, accounting for the What and Why issues, the algorithmic and the implementational levels specifying the How problem. However, the tremendous developments in neuroscience knowledge about processes at different scales of organization together with the complexity of today cognitive theories suggest that there will hardly be only three levels of explanation. Instead, there will be many different degrees of commitments corresponding to the different granularities - from high-level (behavioural) models to low-level (neural and molecular) models of the cognitive research program. For instance, Bayesian approaches, that are usually advocated for formalizing Marr's computational level and rational behaviour, have even been adopted to model synaptic plasticity and axon guidance by molecular gradients. As a result, we can consider the behavioural scientist as dealing with models at a multiplicity of levels. The purpose of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology is to promote an approach to the role of the levels and explanation and models which is of interest for cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, psychologists, behavioural scientists, and philosophers of science.

Turbulence: A Corporate Perspective on Collaborating for Resilience

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ISBN: 9789089647122 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_477310 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-12 11:01:09
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The ever tighter coupling of our food, water and energy systems, in the context of a changing climate is leading to increasing turbulence in the world. As a consequence, it becomes ever more crucial to develop cities, regions, and economies with resilience in mind. Because of their global reach, substantial resources, and information-driven leadership structures, multinational corporations can play a major, constructive role in improving our understanding and design of resilient systems. This volume is the product of the Resilience Action Initiative, a collaboration among Dow, DuPont, IBM, McKinsey en Co., Shell, Siemens, Swiss Re, Unilever, and Yara designed to explore possible corporate contributions to global resilience, especially at the nexus of water, food and energy. Aggressively forward-thinking, and consistent with an enlightened self-interest, the ideas considered here represent a corporate perspective on the broad collaborations required for a more resilient world.

Active Touch Sensing

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192489 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-248-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Active touch can be described as the control of the position and movement of tactile sensing systems to facilitate information gain. In other words, it is finding out about the world by reaching out and exploring - sensing by ‘touching’ as opposed to ‘being touched’. In this Research Topic (with cross-posting in both Behavioural Neuroscience and Neurorobotics) we welcomed articles from junior researchers on any aspect of active touch. We were especially interested in articles on the behavioral, physiological and neuronal underpinnings of active touch in a range of species (including humans) for submission to Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience. We also welcomed articles describing robotic systems with biomimetic or bio-inspired tactile sensing systems for publication in Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193103 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-310-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Therapeutics --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Inflammation of the brain in the context of neurodegenerative disorders is an area of intense debate and discussion, not least in terms of its pathogenic significance and the extent to which it drives disease processes and pathology. This inflammation can take several forms including innate responses recruiting microglia, humoral responses involving antibody, complement mediated processes and cellular T-cell activation, of which the role and extent of each may differ between diseases. Whilst some diseases have been more intensely linked to inflammation and long-term degeneration (e.g. MS), more traditional chronic neurodegenerative disorders have been thought of in terms of intrinsic neuronal pathology with a secondary innate response. However, it has been described that microglia activation is an early event of many degenerative disorders and evidence is accumulating that it may play a critical role in actually causing pathology and driving disease processes. If true, this would have major therapeutic implications, but what is the evidence that this is the case? The initial observations by Patrick McGeer’s group of post-mortem tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease revealed the presence of activated brain microglia and has thus lead to the hypothesis that chronic inflammation could participate to neuronal degenerative processes. The significance of these original observations has only been recently revisited, and the development of more powerful tools to study the brain immune response has certainly contributed to this field of research. Chronic inflammation in the brain can take many forms but of particular interest has been the resident microglia and the role they play in this process. In this context, microglia have often been thought to become activated only after the disease has begun and then to contribute minimally to the degenerative process. Emerging new concepts challenge this view by proposing that microglial senescence, for example, may release the disease process and/or accelerate it. In addition, microglia, once activated, can adopt different phenotypes which can be both pro-inflammatory and pro-repair and may impact not only on the healthy adult neuronal population but on those new neurons derived from neurogenic niches of the adult brain. In this Research Topic, we attempt to explore this by first considering the innate immune responses in the brain and the methods by which they can be studied experimentally and in patients with various neurodegenerative disorders. This sets the scene for then discussing a range of different disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These papers seek to discuss the evidence for an innate immune response and whether this is beneficial or detrimental, as well as its therapeutic implications.

Is Behavioral Economics Doomed?: The Ordinary versus the Extraordinary

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ISBN: 9781906924935 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0021 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2012-11-21 13:39:07
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It is fashionable to criticize economic theory for focusing too much on rationality and ignoring the imperfect and emotional way in which real economic decisions are reached. All of us facing the global economic crisis wonder just how rational economic men and women can be. Behavioral economics — an effort to incorporate psychological ideas into economics — has become all the rage.This book by well-known economist David K. Levine questions the idea that behavioral economics is the answer to economic problems. It explores the successes and failures of contemporary economics both inside and outside the laboratory. It then asks whether popular behavioral theories of psychological biases are solutions to the failures. It not only provides an overview of popular behavioral theories and their history, but also gives the reader the tools for scrutinizing them.Levine’s book is essential reading for students and teachers of economic theory and anyone interested in the psychology of economics.

Reformbedarf im nichtehelichen Eltern-Kind-Verhältnis - 10. Göttinger Workshop zum Familienrecht 2011

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ISBN: 9783863950880 Year: Pages: 90 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-17 04:22:22
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Der vorliegende Band vereinigt die Referate des am 25. November 2011 veranstalteten 10. Göttinger Workshops zum Familienrecht, der die anstehende Reform des nichtehelichen Eltern-Kind-Verhältnisses zum Gegenstand hatte. Die Beiträge beschäftigen sich mit den derzeit diskutierten Lösungsmodellen zur Ausgestaltung der elterlichen Sorge nicht miteinander verheirateter Eltern und beleuchten das nichteheliche Eltern-Kind-Verhältnis auch aus rechtsvergleichender und interdisziplinärer Perspektive. Darüber hinaus werden mögliche Auswirkungen einer Reform des Sorgerechts auf das Adoptionsrecht sowie der durch die Rechtsprechung veranlasste Reformbedarf im Abstammungsrecht diskutiert. Im Hinblick auf den inzwischen vorliegenden Regierungsentwurf eines Gesetzes zur Reform der elterlichen Sorge nicht miteinander verheirateter Eltern haben die in diesem Band enthaltenen rechtspolitischen Forderungen zusätzlich an Aktualität gewonnen. Band 13 der Reihe „Göttinger Juristische Schriften“ Die Reihe wird von der Juristischen Fakultät der Georg-August-Universität herausgegeben und macht Veranstaltungen an der Fakultät einer interessierten Öffentlichkeit zugänglich.

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