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Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring

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ISBN: 9783038429777 9783038429784 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-978-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 08:55:30
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Basin hydrology is related to the soil–atmosphere interaction driven by several blended processes constrained by the space–time variability of precipitation and soil moisture, along with overland flow and flood routing in natural channels. The emerging technologies for the monitoring and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and soil moisture over a catchment, as well as the hillslope and river runoff, are of considerable interest to predict the hydrological responses of a catchment. In this context, this Special Issue, with its eleven theoretical and applied contributions, aims to shed light on the more recent advances in ground observations and remote sensing products, as well as on the benefits resulting from the integration of technological innovation and the development of new ideas in hydrology science. To this purpose, the accepted articles, written by leading researchers in their field, are intended to present and discuss experimental analyses at the catchment scale in terms of: a) intensive measurement campaigns of soil moisture by in situ sensors, remote sensing and modelling approaches; b) discharge monitoring also for high floods, by leveraging advanced technology for ground surface velocity measurements and spaceborne observations of water surface elevation, river width and slope; c) solid precipitation-measuring methods and the selection of snow gauge stations by merging meteorological, hydrological and remote sensing datasets; d) changes in daily precipitation of different intensities over large river basins along with the identification of the space–time rainfall field for different climatic regions ; and finally e) spatial evaporation patterns in different climate regions and assessment of the dominant climate factors affecting the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Hopefully this Special Issue provides different useful insights into advancements in emerging technologies for the monitoring of key hydrological variables and will support the design of a scalable system of operational tools leading to suitable flood mitigation measures and reliable real-time warning systems.

Applications of Remote Sensing/ GIS in Water Resources and Flooding Risk Managements

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ISBN: 9783038429821 9783038429814 Year: Pages: VIII, 222 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 16:57:04
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Remote sensing and GIS play critical roles in water resource and flood inundation mapping and risk management. Remote sensing provides data sources for mapping water resources (snow and glaciers, water bodies, soil moisture and groundwater), measuring hydrological fluxes (ET, precipitation and river discharge), and monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while GIS provides the best tools for water resources, drought and flooding risk management and for setting up hydrologic models, inputting data processing and output analyses and visualizations. This Special Issue Book presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrologic models for water resources mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D model analysis and visualization of glaciers, UAV video image classification for turf grass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimates, TRMM and GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetograph analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of these technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and assist in better mitigating and adapting to the impact of drought and flooding.

Vorhersagbarkeit konvektiver Niederschläge: Hochauflösende Ensemblesimulationen für Westafrika

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 01795619 ISBN: 9783731501893 Year: Volume: 63 Pages: 319 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000039449 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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During the West African Monsoon, convective systems generate the largest part of annual precipitation. We investigate their predictability by conducting high-resolution ensemble simulations with the COSMO model, focusing on the impact of the land surface. Are land-surface &#8211; atmosphere interactions in West Africa as important for precipitation forecasts as larger-scale conditions? What are the main physical processes?

Microwave Indices from Active and Passive Sensors for Remote Sensing Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978206 / 9783038978213 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-821-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Past research has comprehensively assessed the capabilities of satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies, both active (SAR, scatterometers) and passive (radiometers), for the remote sensing of Earth’s surface. Besides brightness temperature and backscattering coefficient, microwave indices, defined as a combination of data collected at different frequencies and polarizations, revealed a good sensitivity to hydrological cycle parameters such as surface soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow depth and its water equivalent. The differences between microwave backscattering and emission at more frequencies and polarizations have been well established in relation to these parameters, enabling operational retrieval algorithms based on microwave indices to be developed. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of microwave signal capabilities in estimating the main land parameters of the hydrological cycle, e.g., soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow water equivalent, on both local and global scales, with a particular focus on the applications of microwave indices.

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-154-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:55:31
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

Power Transformer Diagnostics, Monitoring and Design Features

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ISBN: 9783038974413 / 9783038974420 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-442-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 11:54:22
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Power transformers are key components in electric power distribution and transmission systems, and it is essential that they function properly for many years. With increasing age, there are potential risks of extremely high monetary losses due to unexpected failures and outages. A simple solution would be to replace all aging and risky transformers at once with new ones. Such an approach is obviously not a fiscally realistic solution. The main objectives are to extend their service life and optimize their performance through increased availability. For these reasons, in the past decades transformer life management has gained an ever-increasing interest. The greatest challenges are related to the need for methods to assess their condition and life expectancy along with the improvement of transformers’ efficiency by noble designs and/or the application of new materials. This book covers some theoretical and practical developments with special emphasis on R&D trends in transformer diagnostics and monitoring. Graduate-level students and academics as well as scientists and engineers involved in power equipment design, diagnostics, and monitoring will benefit from this book.

Advancing Earth Surface Representation via Enhanced Use of Earth Observations in Monitoring and Forecasting Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039210640 / 9783039210657 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-065-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The representation of the Earth's surface in global monitoring and forecasting applications is moving towards capturing more of the relevant processes, while maintaining elevated computational efficiency and therefore a moderate complexity. These schemes are developed and continuously improved thanks to well instrumented field-sites that can observe coupled processes occurring at the surface–atmosphere interface (e.g., forest, grassland, cropland areas and diverse climate zones). Approaching global kilometer-scale resolutions, in situ observations alone cannot fulfil the modelling needs, and the use of satellite observation becomes essential to guide modelling innovation and to calibrate and validate new parameterization schemes that can support data assimilation applications. In this book, we review some of the recent contributions, highlighting how satellite data are used to inform Earth surface model development (vegetation state and seasonality, soil moisture conditions, surface temperature and turbulent fluxes, land-use change detection, agricultural indicators and irrigation) when moving towards global km-scale resolutions.

Humidity Sensors. Advances in Reliability, Calibration and Application

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211227 / 9783039211234 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-123-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Humidity detection has deep significance for the scientific research surrounding medical care and human performance, and the industrial development of agriculture, geography and automated instruments. This special issue aims to showcase some of the advancements in humidity sensor design and calibration, and its applications. The selected papers cover a variety of humidity sensor-related topics including material science, chemistry and industrial engineering. Through dedicated contributions from peer reviewers and the editorial team, this book aims to offers reader some insight into the field of humidity sensor development and use.

Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data into Earth System Models

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216406 / 9783039216413 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-641-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the Earth sciences, a transition is currently occurring in multiple fields towards an integrated Earth system approach, with applications including numerical weather prediction, hydrological forecasting, climate impact studies, ocean dynamics estimation and monitoring, and carbon cycle monitoring. These approaches rely on coupled modeling techniques using Earth system models that account for an increased level of complexity of the processes and interactions between atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and terrestrial surfaces. A crucial component of Earth system approaches is the development of coupled data assimilation of satellite observations to ensure consistent initialization at the interface between the different subsystems. Going towards strongly coupled data assimilation involving all Earth system components is a subject of active research. A lot of progress is being made in the ocean–atmosphere domain, but also over land. As atmospheric models now tend to address subkilometric scales, assimilating high spatial resolution satellite data in the land surface models used in atmospheric models is critical. This evolution is also challenging for hydrological modeling. This book gathers papers reporting research on various aspects of coupled data assimilation in Earth system models. It includes contributions presenting recent progress in ocean–atmosphere, land–atmosphere, and soil–vegetation data assimilation.

Google Earth Engine Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978848 9783038978855 Year: Pages: 420 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-885-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In a rapidly changing world, there is an ever-increasing need to monitor the Earth&rsquo;s resources and manage it sustainably for future generations. Earth observation from satellites is critical to provide information required for informed and timely decision making in this regard. Satellite-based earth observation has advanced rapidly over the last 50 years, and there is a plethora of satellite sensors imaging the Earth at finer spatial and spectral resolutions as well as high temporal resolutions. The amount of data available for any single location on the Earth is now at the petabyte-scale. An ever-increasing capacity and computing power is needed to handle such large datasets. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud-based computing platform that was established by Google to support such data processing. This facility allows for the storage, processing and analysis of spatial data using centralized high-power computing resources, allowing scientists, researchers, hobbyists and anyone else interested in such fields to mine this data and understand the changes occurring on the Earth&rsquo;s surface. This book presents research that applies the Google Earth Engine in mining, storing, retrieving and processing spatial data for a variety of applications that include vegetation monitoring, cropland mapping, ecosystem assessment, and gross primary productivity, among others. Datasets used range from coarse spatial resolution data, such as MODIS, to medium resolution datasets (Worldview -2), and the studies cover the entire globe at varying spatial and temporal scales.

Keywords

Google Earth Engine --- NDVI --- vegetation index --- Landsat --- remote sensing --- phenology --- surface reflectance --- cropland mapping --- cropland areas --- 30-m --- Landsat-8 --- Sentinel-2 --- Random Forest --- Support Vector Machines --- segmentation --- RHSeg --- Google Earth Engine --- Africa --- remote sensing --- semi-arid --- ecosystem assessment --- land use change --- image classification --- seasonal vegetation --- carbon cycle --- Google Earth Engine --- crop yield --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- data fusion --- Landsat --- MODIS --- MODIS --- Random Forest --- pasture mapping --- Brazilian pasturelands dynamics --- Google Earth Engine --- crop classification --- multi-classifier --- cloud computing --- time series --- high spatial resolution --- BACI --- Enhanced Vegetation Index --- Google Earth Engine --- cloud-based geo-processing --- satellite-derived bathymetry --- image composition --- pseudo-invariant features --- sun glint correction --- empirical --- spatial error --- Google Earth Engine --- low cost in situ --- Sentinel-2 --- Mediterranean --- burn severity --- change detection --- Landsat --- dNBR --- RdNBR --- RBR --- composite burn index (CBI) --- MTBS --- lower mekong basin --- landsat collection --- suspended sediment concentration --- online application --- google earth engine --- Landsat --- Google Earth Engine --- protected area --- forest and land use mapping --- machine learning classification --- China --- temporal compositing --- image time series --- multitemporal analysis --- change detection --- cloud masking --- Landsat-8 --- Google Earth Engine (GEE) --- Google Earth Engine --- LAI --- FVC --- FAPAR --- CWC --- plant traits --- random forests --- PROSAIL --- small-scale mining --- industrial mining --- google engine --- image classification --- land-use cover change --- seagrass --- habitat mapping --- image composition --- machine learning --- support vector machines --- Google Earth Engine --- Sentinel-2 --- Aegean --- Ionian --- global scale --- soil moisture --- Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity --- Soil Moisture Active Passive --- Google Earth Engine --- drought --- cloud computing --- remote sensing --- snow hydrology --- water resources --- Google Earth Engine --- user assessment --- MODIS --- snow cover --- flood --- disaster prevention --- emergency response --- decision making --- Google Earth Engine --- land cover --- deforestation --- Brazilian Amazon --- Bayesian statistics --- BULC-U --- Mato Grosso --- spatial resolution --- Landsat --- GlobCover --- SDG --- surface urban heat island --- Geo Big Data --- Google Earth Engine --- global monitoring service --- Google Earth Engine --- web portal --- satellite imagery --- trends --- earth observation --- wetland --- Google Earth Engine --- Sentinel-1 --- Sentinel-2 --- random forest --- cloud computing --- geo-big data --- cloud computing --- big data analytics --- long term monitoring --- data archival --- early warning systems

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