Search results: Found 11

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Motor Cortex Microcircuits (Frontiers in Brain Microcircuits Series)

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193899 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-389-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

How does the motor cortex enable mammals to generate accurate, complex, and purposeful movements? A cubic millimeter of motor cortex contains roughly ~10^5 cells, an amazing ~4 Km of axons and ~0.4 Km of dendrites, somehow wired together with ~10^9 synapses. Corticospinal neurons (a.k.a. Betz cells, upper motor neurons) are a key cell type, monosynaptically conveying the output of the cortical circuit to the spinal cord circuits and lower motor neurons. But corticospinal neurons are greatly outnumbered by all the other kinds of neurons in motor cortex, which presumably also contribute crucially to the computational operations carried out for planning, executing, and guiding actions. Determining the wiring patterns, the dynamics of signaling, and how these relate to movement at the level of specific excitatory and inhibitory cell types is critically important for a mechanistic understanding of the input-output organization of motor cortex. While there is a predictive microcircuit hypothesis that relates motor learning to the operation of the cerebellar cortex, we lack such a microcircuit understanding in motor cortex and we consider microcircuits as a central research topic in the field. This Research Topic covers any issues relating to the microcircuit-level analysis of motor cortex. Contributions are welcomed from neuroscientists at all levels of investigation, from in vivo physiology and imaging in humans and monkeys, to rodent models, in vitro anatomy, electrophysiology, electroanatomy, cellular imaging, molecular biology, disease models, computational modeling, and more.

The cognitive and neural bases of human tool use

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194261 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-426-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Humans are not unique in using tools. But human tool use differs from that known to occur in nonhumans in being very frequent, spontaneous, and diversified. So a fundamental issue is, what are the cognitive and neural bases of human tool use?This Research Topic of Frontiers provides a venue for leading researchers in the field of tool use to present original research papers, integrative reviews or theoretical articles that further our understanding of this topic.Articles address a wide range of issues including, for instance, the nature of the underlying representations (e.g., conceptual, sensorimotor), the mechanisms supporting the incorporation of tools into body schema, the link between imitation and tool use, or the evolutionary origins of human tool use.Articles are included from experimental psychology, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, developmental psychology, ethology, comparative psychology, and ergonomics. The goal of this Research Topic of Frontiers is to provide a state-of-the-art view of the field.

From Brain to Body: The Impact of Nervous System Declines on Muscle Performance in Aging

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196869 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-686-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The deterioration of skeletal muscle performance (e.g., declines in muscle strength and motor performance) with advancing age has long been anecdotally recognized as Shakespeare pointed out nearly a half millennium ago in his monologue The Seven Ages of Man, and has been of scientific interest for well over a century. Over the past several decades the scientific and medical communities have recognized that reduced skeletal muscle performance is a debilitating and life threatening condition in the elderly. For example, the age-associated loss of muscle strength, as well as impairment in the ability to finely control movement, is highly associated with physical disability and difficulty performing activities of daily living. While the nervous system is widely recognized for its role in controlling skeletal muscle during motor function, its role in determining the performance characteristics of aged skeletal muscle has largely been understudied. Historically, it was believed that these reductions in muscle performance were primarily resultant of age-associated adaptations in skeletal muscle (e.g., muscle atrophy). However, aging is associated with widespread qualitative and quantitative changes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems that are likely to influence numerous aspects of muscle performance, such as muscle strength, fatigue, and motor control, as well as mobility. In this research topic, we sought to examine a broad range of issues surrounding: 1) the age-related changes in nervous system anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems; 2) the functional role of these nervous system changes in contributing to altered skeletal muscle performance and/or mobility; and 3) physical and pharmacologic interventions that act via the nervous system to enhance muscle performance and/or mobility. Researchers and academicians engaged in aging, neuroscience, and/or applied physiology research focused within the scope of this research topic, were encouraged to contribute an original research article, review article, clinical case study, hypothesis and theory article, method article, opinion article, or technology report to this research topic. Herein, we present a series of outstanding articles within this scope of work, including a last minute addition article from Wiesmeier, Dalin and Maurer that is not mentioned in the editorial, that we hope will help to vertically advance the intersecting fields of aging/geriatrics and neuroscience. Lastly, as the editors, we wish to thank all article contributors and peer reviewers for their efforts in contributing to this Research Topic journal issue/book. Additionally, we would like to thank people everywhere who volunteer their time and body for human subjects research studies, such that are presented herein. It is the wonderful individuals who are willing to participate in experiments that make scientific exploration and health and medical advancements possible.

Keywords

Muscle --- Sarcopenia --- dynapenia --- Aging --- Frailty --- weakness --- motor control

Awareness shaping or shaped by prediction and postdiction

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195329 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-532-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

We intuitively believe that we are aware of the external world as it is. Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. In fact, the capacity of our sensory system is too small to veridically perceive the world. To overcome this problem, the sensory system has to spatiotemporally integrate neural signals in order to interpret the external world. However, the spatiotemporal integration involves severe neural latencies. How does the sensory system keep up with the ever-changing external world? As later discussed, ‘prediction’ and ‘postdiction’ are essential keywords here. For example, the sensory system uses temporally preceding events to predict subsequent events (e.g., Nijhawan, 1994; Kerzel, 2003; Hubbard, 2005) even when the preceding event is subliminally presented (Schmidt, 2000). Moreover, internal prediction modulates the perception of action outcomes (Bays et al., 2005; Cardoso-Leite et al., 2010) and sense of agency (Wenke et al., 2010). Prediction is also an indispensable factor for movement planning and control (Kawato, 1999). On the other hand, the sensory system also makes use of subsequent events to postdictively interpret a preceding event (e.g. Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2000; Enns, 2002; Khuu et al., 2010; Kawabe, 2011, 2012; Miyazaki et al., 2010; Ono & Kitazawa, 2011) and it's much the same even for infancy (Newman et al., 2008). Moreover, it has also been proposed that sense of agency stems not only from predictive processing but also from postdictive inference (Ebert & Wegner, 2011). The existence of postdictive processing is also supported by several neuroscience studies (Kamitani & Shimojo, 1999; Lau et al., 2007). How prediction and postdiction shape awareness of the external world is an intriguing question. Prediction is involved with the encoding of incoming signals, whereas postdiction is related to a re-interpretation of already encoded signals. Given this perspective, prediction and postdiction may exist along a processing stream for a single external event. However, it is unclear whether, and if so how, prediction and postdiction interact with each other to shape awareness of the external world. Awareness of the external world may also shape prediction and/or postdiction. It is plausible that awareness of the external world drives the prediction and postdiction of future and past appearances of the world. However, the literature provides little information about the role of awareness of the external world in prediction and postdiction. This background propelled us to propose this research topic with the aim of offering a space for systematic discussion concerning the relationship between awareness, prediction and postdiction among researchers in broad research areas, such as psychology, psychophysics, neuroscience, cognitive science, philosophy, and so forth. We encouraged papers that address one or more of the following questions: 1) How does prediction shape awareness of the external world? 2) How does postdiction shape awareness of the external world? 3) How do prediction and postdiction interact with each other in shaping awareness of the external world? 4) How does awareness of the external world shape prediction/postdiction?

Perceiving and Acting in the Real World: From Neural Activity to Behavior

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450282 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-028-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

One remarkable ability of the human brain is to process large amounts of information about our surroundings to allow us to interact effectively with them. In everyday life, the most common way to interact with objects is by reaching, grasping, lifting and manipulating them. Although these may sound like simple tasks, the perceptual properties of the target object, such as its location, size, shape, and orientation all need to be processed in order to set the movement parameters that allow an accurate reach-to-grasp-to lift movement. Several brain areas work in concert to process this outstanding amount of visual information and drive the execution of a motor plan in just a few hundred milliseconds. How are these processes orchestrated? In developing this type of comprehensive knowledge about the interactions between objects perception and goal-directed actions, we have a window into the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the visuo-motor system. With this research topic we aim to further understand the neural mechanisms that mediate our interactions with the world. Therefore, we particularly encourage submission of papers that attempt to relate such findings to real-world situations by investigating behavioural and neural correlates of information processing related to eye-hand coordination and visually-guided actions, including reaching, grasping, and lifting movements. This topic welcomes submissions of original research using any relevant techniques and methods, from behavioural kinematics/kinetics, to neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as neuropsychological studies.One remarkable ability of the human brain is to process large amounts of information about our surroundings to allow us to interact effectively with them. In everyday life, the most common way to interact with objects is by reaching, grasping, lifting and manipulating them. Although these may sound like simple tasks, the perceptual properties of the target object, such as its location, size, shape, and orientation all need to be processed in order to set the movement parameters that allow an accurate reach-to-grasp-to lift movement. Several brain areas work in concert to process this outstanding amount of visual information and drive the execution of a motor plan in just a few hundred milliseconds. How are these processes orchestrated? In developing this type of comprehensive knowledge about the interactions between objects perception and goal-directed actions, we have a window into the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the visuo-motor system. With this research topic we aim to further understand the neural mechanisms that mediate our interactions with the world. Therefore, we particularly encourage submission of papers that attempt to relate such findings to real-world situations by investigating behavioural and neural correlates of information processing related to eye-hand coordination and visually-guided actions, including reaching, grasping, and lifting movements. This topic welcomes submissions of original research using any relevant techniques and methods, from behavioural kinematics/kinetics, to neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as neuropsychological studies.

Online and Offline Modulators of Motor Learning

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451661 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Both the acquisition of new and the modification of previously acquired motor skills are necessary to achieve optimal levels of motor performance in everyday functioning as well as to attain expert performance levels that are evident in sports and arts. A multitude of factors have been shown to influence the various stages of the learning process, from the acquisition (i.e., motor memory encoding) to the consolidation and subsequent retention of a skill. These factors, or modulators, can affect learning through online processes taking place during practice of a new motor skill or through offline processes occurring in the absence of task performance (i.e., after training sessions). Although much of the recent research from various disciplines has placed an increased emphasis on identifying factors that can influence the motor learning process, we lack an integrated understanding of online and offline determinants of motor skill behaviours. Potential motor learning modulators include, but are certainly not limited to, stress, anxiety, attention, executive functioning, social interaction, stimulus-response mapping, training schedule/regimen, learning environment, vigilance/consciousness states including sleep, wakefulness or meditation, brain stimulation, interference as well as resting state brain connectivity. Pathological and non-pathological (i.e., development or aging) changes in the brain can also be conceptualized as potential modulators. The aim of this Research Topic is to bridge research from the cognitive, sensory, motor and psychological domains using various behavioural paradigms and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide a comprehensive view of the online and offline modulators of motor learning, and how they interact to influence motor performance. Critically, the overarching goal is to gain a better understanding of how motor behaviour can be optimized. We believe that merging research from diverse neuroscientific communities would contribute to fulfilling this goal and potentially highlight possible shared neurophysiological mechanisms influencing motor learning.

The Insect Central Complex - From Sensory Coding to Directing Movement

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455782 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-578-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The most fundamental function of the brain is the analysis and integration of sensory information in order to generate motor commands that result in directed, meaningful interactions with the environment. This process can be viewed as an internal comparison between the current state of the world and a desired state of the world, with any mismatch leading to compensatory action. For an animal to respond to external stimuli in a directed way in any given sensory situation, it first has to assess the orientation of its body with reference to the environment. The current body position computed in this way then has to be matched against the desired position, and any resulting discrepancy has to be compensated for by a change in limb position, movement direction, or a transition to a new movement mode. The desired body orientation depends on many different parameters, such as the animal’s nutritional state, its reproductive status, the time of day, the current behavioral state, or previous experience. Vertebrate brains process these parameters across diverse brain regions, involving millions of neurons, a fact that makes pinpointing the underlying circuitry a daunting endeavor.Across insects, a single brain area, the central complex, is involved in many of the mentioned fundamental processes: It contains an ordered array of head direction cells, its neurons are targeted by multisensory input pathways, visual and spatial memories reside in this region, and certain central-complex neurons are active just before movements of the animal, predicting its future turning direction. Additionally, state-dependent changes of neural response characteristics and a vast supply of neuromodulators suggests a highly dynamic, context-dependent remodeling of local circuitry. All of this places the central complex at the interface of sensory processing and motor planning, providing a location at which current and desired heading could be compared and adequate action can be selected in response. The highly regular, almost crystalline neuroarchitecture of this region has the advantage of enabling us to immediately connect structure with function - at the level of identified, individual neurons. The neural algorithms implemented in the circuitry that mediate action selection are thus uniquely accessible in this brain region. This research topic therefore aims at connecting the diverse aspects of central-complex function and develop an open-source framework in which to embed current knowledge (reviews) and novel findings from biological, theoretical, and engineering perspectives (original research articles, short communications). Four complementary sub-topics provide the main focus: 1) The current state of the world - Encoding and integration of sensory information; 2) Generating behavior - Motor planning and neural correlates of behavior; 3) Computing the desired state of the world - Integration of internal state, memory, and behavioral state; 4) Neural hardware and algorithms - The underlying circuits and computations of the central complex. By illuminating structure-function relations on multiple levels in diverse species, within a brain region that is omnipresent across insects, we aim at exposing fundamental principles that enable animals to generate adaptive behavior despite inhabiting a world of an infinite number of possible sensory scenarios.

Arm and Hand Movement: Current Knowledge and Future Perspective

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195770 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-577-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Research Topic is devoted to arm and hand movement in health as well as in several disease conditions. It is a collection of several original research papers and reviews, clinical case studies, hypothesis and theory articles, opinions, commentaries, and methods papers that cover some important aspects of the topic from distinct scientific perspectives. We invite the readers to appreciate the range in methodologies and experimental designs that together have led to widen our understanding of this especially broad field of research.

Psychomotor symptomatology in psychiatric illnesses

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197255 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-725-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Psychomotor symptoms are those symptoms that are characterized by deficits in the initiation, execution and monitoring of movements, such as psychomotor slowing, catatonia, neurological soft signs (NSS), reduction in motor activity or extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). These symptoms have not always received the attention they deserve although they can be observed in a wide range of psychiatric illnesses, including mood disorders, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorders and personality disorders. Nevertheless, these symptoms seem to have prognostic value on clinical and functional outcome in several pathologies. In the late 19th century, the founding fathers of modern psychiatry (including Kahlbaum, Wernicke, Kraepelin and Bleuler) had a strong focus on psychomotor abnormalities in their description and definitions of psychiatric illnesses and systematically recognized these as core features of several psychiatric pathologies. Nevertheless, emphasis on these symptoms has reduced substantially since the emergence of psychopharmacology, given the association between antipsychotics or antidepressants and medication-induced motor deficits. This has resulted in the general idea that most if not all psychomotor deficits were merely side effects of their treatment rather than intrinsic features of the illness. Yet, the last two decades a renewed interest in these deficits can be observed and has yielded an exponential growth of research into these psychomotor symptoms in several psychiatric illnesses. This recent evolution is also reflected in the increased appreciation of these symptoms in the DSM-5. As a result of this increased focus, new insights into the clinical and demographical presentation, the etiology, the course, the prognostic value as well as treatment aspects of psychomotor symptomatology in different illnesses has emerged. Still, many new questions arise from these findings. This research topic is comprised of all types of contributions (original research, reviews, and opinion piece) with a focus on psychomotor symptomatology in a psychiatric illness, especially research focusing on one or more of the following topics: the clinical presentation of the psychomotor syndrome; the course through the illness; the diagnostical specificity of the syndrome; the underlying neurobiological or neuropsychological processes; new assessment techniques; pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment strategies.

Principles Underlying Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor Function - A Neuroimaging Perspective

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197675 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-767-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neuroimaging post-stroke has the potential to uncover underlying principles of disturbed hand function and recovery characterizing defined patient groups, including their long term course as well as individual variations. The methods comprise functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measuring task related activation as well as resting state. Functional MRI may be complemented by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to investigate slowly varying blood flow and associated changes in brain function. For structural MRI robust and accurate computational anatomical methods like voxel-based morphometry and surface based techniques are available. The investigation of the connectivity among brain regions and disruption after stroke is facilitated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Intra- and interhemispheric coherence may be studied by electromagnetic techniques such as electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Consecutive phases of stroke recovery (acute, subacute, early chronic and late chronic stages) are each distinguished by intrinsic processes. The site and size of lesions entail partially different functional implications. New strategies to establish functional specificity of a lesion site include calculating contrast images between patients exhibiting a specific disorder and control subjects without the disorder. Large-size lesions often imply poor cerebral blood flow which impedes recovery significantly and possibly interferes with BOLD response of functional MRI. Thus, depending on the site and size of the infarct lesion the patterns of recovery will vary. These include recovery sensu stricto in the perilesional area, intrinsic compensatory mechanisms using alternative cortical and subcortical pathways, or behavioral compensatory strategies e.g. by using the non-affected limb. In this context, behavioral and neuroimaging measures should be developed and employed to delineate aspects of learning during recovery. Of special interest in recovery of hand paresis is the interplay between sensory and motor areas in the posterior parietal cortex involved during reaching and fine motor skills as well as the interaction with the contralesional hemisphere. The dominant disability should be characterized, from the level of elementary to hierarchically higher processes such as neglect, apraxia and motor planning. In summary, this Research Topic covers new trends in state of the art neuroimaging of stroke during recovery from upper limb paresis. Integration of behavioral and neuroimaging findings in probabilistic brain atlases will further advance knowledge about stroke recovery.

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (11)


License

CC by (11)


Language

english (11)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

2015 (6)