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Motor Cortex Microcircuits (Frontiers in Brain Microcircuits Series)

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193899 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-389-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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How does the motor cortex enable mammals to generate accurate, complex, and purposeful movements? A cubic millimeter of motor cortex contains roughly ~10^5 cells, an amazing ~4 Km of axons and ~0.4 Km of dendrites, somehow wired together with ~10^9 synapses. Corticospinal neurons (a.k.a. Betz cells, upper motor neurons) are a key cell type, monosynaptically conveying the output of the cortical circuit to the spinal cord circuits and lower motor neurons. But corticospinal neurons are greatly outnumbered by all the other kinds of neurons in motor cortex, which presumably also contribute crucially to the computational operations carried out for planning, executing, and guiding actions. Determining the wiring patterns, the dynamics of signaling, and how these relate to movement at the level of specific excitatory and inhibitory cell types is critically important for a mechanistic understanding of the input-output organization of motor cortex. While there is a predictive microcircuit hypothesis that relates motor learning to the operation of the cerebellar cortex, we lack such a microcircuit understanding in motor cortex and we consider microcircuits as a central research topic in the field. This Research Topic covers any issues relating to the microcircuit-level analysis of motor cortex. Contributions are welcomed from neuroscientists at all levels of investigation, from in vivo physiology and imaging in humans and monkeys, to rodent models, in vitro anatomy, electrophysiology, electroanatomy, cellular imaging, molecular biology, disease models, computational modeling, and more.

Online and Offline Modulators of Motor Learning

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451661 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Both the acquisition of new and the modification of previously acquired motor skills are necessary to achieve optimal levels of motor performance in everyday functioning as well as to attain expert performance levels that are evident in sports and arts. A multitude of factors have been shown to influence the various stages of the learning process, from the acquisition (i.e., motor memory encoding) to the consolidation and subsequent retention of a skill. These factors, or modulators, can affect learning through online processes taking place during practice of a new motor skill or through offline processes occurring in the absence of task performance (i.e., after training sessions). Although much of the recent research from various disciplines has placed an increased emphasis on identifying factors that can influence the motor learning process, we lack an integrated understanding of online and offline determinants of motor skill behaviours. Potential motor learning modulators include, but are certainly not limited to, stress, anxiety, attention, executive functioning, social interaction, stimulus-response mapping, training schedule/regimen, learning environment, vigilance/consciousness states including sleep, wakefulness or meditation, brain stimulation, interference as well as resting state brain connectivity. Pathological and non-pathological (i.e., development or aging) changes in the brain can also be conceptualized as potential modulators. The aim of this Research Topic is to bridge research from the cognitive, sensory, motor and psychological domains using various behavioural paradigms and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide a comprehensive view of the online and offline modulators of motor learning, and how they interact to influence motor performance. Critically, the overarching goal is to gain a better understanding of how motor behaviour can be optimized. We believe that merging research from diverse neuroscientific communities would contribute to fulfilling this goal and potentially highlight possible shared neurophysiological mechanisms influencing motor learning.

Psychomotor symptomatology in psychiatric illnesses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197255 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-725-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Psychomotor symptoms are those symptoms that are characterized by deficits in the initiation, execution and monitoring of movements, such as psychomotor slowing, catatonia, neurological soft signs (NSS), reduction in motor activity or extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). These symptoms have not always received the attention they deserve although they can be observed in a wide range of psychiatric illnesses, including mood disorders, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorders and personality disorders. Nevertheless, these symptoms seem to have prognostic value on clinical and functional outcome in several pathologies. In the late 19th century, the founding fathers of modern psychiatry (including Kahlbaum, Wernicke, Kraepelin and Bleuler) had a strong focus on psychomotor abnormalities in their description and definitions of psychiatric illnesses and systematically recognized these as core features of several psychiatric pathologies. Nevertheless, emphasis on these symptoms has reduced substantially since the emergence of psychopharmacology, given the association between antipsychotics or antidepressants and medication-induced motor deficits. This has resulted in the general idea that most if not all psychomotor deficits were merely side effects of their treatment rather than intrinsic features of the illness. Yet, the last two decades a renewed interest in these deficits can be observed and has yielded an exponential growth of research into these psychomotor symptoms in several psychiatric illnesses. This recent evolution is also reflected in the increased appreciation of these symptoms in the DSM-5. As a result of this increased focus, new insights into the clinical and demographical presentation, the etiology, the course, the prognostic value as well as treatment aspects of psychomotor symptomatology in different illnesses has emerged. Still, many new questions arise from these findings. This research topic is comprised of all types of contributions (original research, reviews, and opinion piece) with a focus on psychomotor symptomatology in a psychiatric illness, especially research focusing on one or more of the following topics: the clinical presentation of the psychomotor syndrome; the course through the illness; the diagnostical specificity of the syndrome; the underlying neurobiological or neuropsychological processes; new assessment techniques; pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment strategies.

Infants’ Understanding and Production of Goal-Directed Actions in the Context of Social and Object-Related Interactions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452552 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-255-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Since the discovery of mirror neurons, the study of human infant goal-directed actions and object manipulation has burgeoned into new and exciting research directions. A number of infant studies have begun emphasizing the social context of action to understand what infants can infer when looking at others performing goal-directed actions or manipulating objects. Others have begun addressing how looking at actions in a social context, or even simply looking at objects in the immediate environment influence the way infants learn to direct their own actions on objects. Researchers have even begun investigating what aspects of goal-directed actions and object manipulation infants imitate when such actions are being modeled by a social partner, or they have been asking which cues infants use to predict others' actions. A growing understanding of how infants learn to reach, perceive information for reaching, and attend social cues for action has become central to many recent studies. These new lines of investigation and others have benefited from the use of a broad range of new investigative techniques. Eye-tracking, brains imaging techniques and new methodologies have been used to scrutinize how infants look, process, and use information to act themselves on objects and/or the social world, and to infer, predict, and recognize goal-directed actions outcomes from others. This Frontiers Research topic brings together empirical reports, literature reviews, and theory and hypothesis papers that tap into some of these exciting developmental questions about how infants perceive, understand, and perform goal-directed actions broadly defined. The papers included either stress the neural, motor, or perceptual aspects of infants’ behavior, or any combination of those dimensions as related to the development of early cognitive understanding and performance of goal-directed actions.

Autism: The Movement Perspective

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195091 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-509-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is portrayed as cognitive and social disorders. Undoubtedly, impairments in communication and restricted-repetitive behaviors that now define the disorders have a profound impact on social interactions. But can we go beyond the descriptive, observational nature of this definition and objectively measure that amalgamate of motions and sensations that we call behavior?In this Research Topic we bring movement and its sensation to the forefront of autism research, diagnosis, and treatment. We gather researchers across disciplines with the unifying goal of recognizing movement and sensory disturbances as core symptoms of the disorder. We also hear confirmation from the perspective of autism self-advocates and parents. Those important sources of evidence along with the research presented in this topic demonstrate without a doubt that profound movement and sensory differences do exist in ASD and that they are quantifiable.The work presented in this Research Topic shows us that quantifiable differences in movements have a better chance than current observational techniques to help us uncover subtle solutions that the nervous system with autism has already spontaneously self-discovered and utilized in daily living. Where the naked eye would miss the unique subtleties that help each individual cope, instrumentation and fine kinematic analyses of motions help us uncover inherent capacities and predispositions of the person with autism. The work presented in this topic helps us better articulate through the voices of parents and self-advocates those sensory motor differences that current inventories could not possibly uncover. These differences are seldom perceived as they take place at timescales and frequencies that fall largely beneath our conscious awareness. To the person in the spectrum living with this disorder and to the caregiver creating accommodations to help the affected loved one, these subtleties are very familiar though. Indeed they are often used in clever ways to facilitate daily routines. We have waited much too long in science to listen to the very people that we are trying to define, understand and help.Being autism a social problem by definition, it is remarkable that not a single diagnosis inventory measures the dyadic social interaction that takes place between the examiner and the examinees. Indeed we have conceived the autistic person within a social context where we are incapable - by definition - of accepting those differences. The burden is rather placed on the affected person to whom much too often we refer to in the third person as “non-verbal, without intentionality, without empathy or emotions, without a theory of mind”, among other purely psychological guesses. It is then too easy and shockingly allowed to “reshape” that person, to mold that person to better conform to our social expectations and to extinguish “behaviors” that are socially unacceptable, even through the use of aversive punishing reinforcement techniques if need be. And yet none of those techniques have had a single shred of objective scientific evidence of their effectiveness. We have not objectively measured once, nor have we physiologically characterized once any of those perceived features that we so often use to observationally define what we may think the autistic phenotype may be. We have not properly quantified, beyond paper-and-pencil methods, the effectiveness of interventions in autism.

The cognitive and neural bases of human tool use

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194261 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-426-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Humans are not unique in using tools. But human tool use differs from that known to occur in nonhumans in being very frequent, spontaneous, and diversified. So a fundamental issue is, what are the cognitive and neural bases of human tool use?This Research Topic of Frontiers provides a venue for leading researchers in the field of tool use to present original research papers, integrative reviews or theoretical articles that further our understanding of this topic.Articles address a wide range of issues including, for instance, the nature of the underlying representations (e.g., conceptual, sensorimotor), the mechanisms supporting the incorporation of tools into body schema, the link between imitation and tool use, or the evolutionary origins of human tool use.Articles are included from experimental psychology, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, developmental psychology, ethology, comparative psychology, and ergonomics. The goal of this Research Topic of Frontiers is to provide a state-of-the-art view of the field.

From Brain to Body: The Impact of Nervous System Declines on Muscle Performance in Aging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196869 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-686-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The deterioration of skeletal muscle performance (e.g., declines in muscle strength and motor performance) with advancing age has long been anecdotally recognized as Shakespeare pointed out nearly a half millennium ago in his monologue The Seven Ages of Man, and has been of scientific interest for well over a century. Over the past several decades the scientific and medical communities have recognized that reduced skeletal muscle performance is a debilitating and life threatening condition in the elderly. For example, the age-associated loss of muscle strength, as well as impairment in the ability to finely control movement, is highly associated with physical disability and difficulty performing activities of daily living. While the nervous system is widely recognized for its role in controlling skeletal muscle during motor function, its role in determining the performance characteristics of aged skeletal muscle has largely been understudied. Historically, it was believed that these reductions in muscle performance were primarily resultant of age-associated adaptations in skeletal muscle (e.g., muscle atrophy). However, aging is associated with widespread qualitative and quantitative changes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems that are likely to influence numerous aspects of muscle performance, such as muscle strength, fatigue, and motor control, as well as mobility. In this research topic, we sought to examine a broad range of issues surrounding: 1) the age-related changes in nervous system anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems; 2) the functional role of these nervous system changes in contributing to altered skeletal muscle performance and/or mobility; and 3) physical and pharmacologic interventions that act via the nervous system to enhance muscle performance and/or mobility. Researchers and academicians engaged in aging, neuroscience, and/or applied physiology research focused within the scope of this research topic, were encouraged to contribute an original research article, review article, clinical case study, hypothesis and theory article, method article, opinion article, or technology report to this research topic. Herein, we present a series of outstanding articles within this scope of work, including a last minute addition article from Wiesmeier, Dalin and Maurer that is not mentioned in the editorial, that we hope will help to vertically advance the intersecting fields of aging/geriatrics and neuroscience. Lastly, as the editors, we wish to thank all article contributors and peer reviewers for their efforts in contributing to this Research Topic journal issue/book. Additionally, we would like to thank people everywhere who volunteer their time and body for human subjects research studies, such that are presented herein. It is the wonderful individuals who are willing to participate in experiments that make scientific exploration and health and medical advancements possible.

Keywords

Muscle --- Sarcopenia --- dynapenia --- Aging --- Frailty --- weakness --- motor control

The Cerebellum: From Development to Learning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196197 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-619-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In this book, laboratory leaders on cerebellar neuroscience have revised the present body of knowledge about cerebellum anatomy and function. The trip throughout the cerebellar vineyard organization starts from the causal study of morphogenesis (that is, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underplaying form generation) to the molecular mechanism regulation cellular differentiation: Basson, Dusart, Hawkes, Martinez and Rosi’s groups contributions. Then, neurodevelopmental anomalies associated with structural disorganization are revised in Jissendi and Batkovich’s group reviews, describing and discussing pathogenic processes. Finally, functional mechanisms of cerebellar circuits involved in motor learning are revised by Delgado-Garcia and Armengol’s group contribution.

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker for and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452613 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-261-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The sensory and motor cortical homunculi proposed by Walter Penfield were a major landmark for the anatomical mapping of the brain. More than 60 years after, the development of new tools to investigate brain function non-invasively has increased our knowledge about the structure and functions of the primary motor Cortex (M1) beyond motor control in both humans and animals. This book highlights the role of the motor cortex that goes way beyond motor functioning. We were interested in both theoretical and empirical contributions related to electrophysiological, pharmacological, neuroimaging, and neuromodulatory studies exploring the role of M1 on non-motor functions, such as pain, abnormal neuroplasticity that may lead to chronic pain conditions; or the relationship between M1 and mental imagery or emotion. This book is comprised of 15 articles published in this edited volume as a research topic collection in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing.”

Transformations in Twentieth Century Korea

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Book Series: Routledge Advances in Korean Studies ISBN: 9780203968277 9780415380652 9780415546959 9781134179381 9781134179374 9781134179336 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203968277 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:05
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This edited collection traces the social, economic, political, and cultural dimensions of Korea’s dramatic transformation since the late nineteenth century. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, the chapters examine the internal and external forces which facilitated the transition towards industrial capitalism in Korea, the consequences and impact of social change, and the ways in which Korean tradition continues to inform and influence contemporary South Korean society. Transformations in Twentieth Century Korea employs a thematic structure to discuss the interrelated elements of Korea’s modernization within agriculture, business and the economy, the state, ideology and culture, and gender and the family. The essays in this volume encompass the Choson dynasty, the colonial period, and postcolonial Korea. Collectively, they provide us with an original and innovative approach to the study of modern Korea, and show how knowledge of the country’s past is critical to understanding contemporary Korean society. With contributions from a number of prominent international scholars within sociology, economics, history, and political science, Transformations in Twentieth Century Korea incorporates a global framework of historical narrative, ideology and culture, and statistical and economic analysis to further our understanding of Korea’s evolution towards modernity.

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