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Model organisms in inflammation and cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193707 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-370-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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A link between inflammation and cancer was initially made by Rudolf Virchow back in the 19th century. Nowadays many cancers are considered dependent on inflammatory responses to microbial and damaged-self stimuli and both arms of immunity, innate and adaptive, are playing a role in promoting cancer. Moreover, besides environmental factors, opportunistic pathogens contribute to inflammation and cancer. Nevertheless, microbial influence on chronic disease is sometimes difficult to discern, especially in the context of polymicrobial communities, such as those found in the digestive tract. In this light, model organisms provide important insights into immune and growth signals that promote cancer, and suggest therapies that will selectively target potentially harmful microbes or modulate host responses. A number of review and opinion articles in this series address novel aspects and paradigms of the interactions between the microbiota and the host in relation to inflammation and cancer.

Keywords

Drosophila --- human --- mouse --- innate immunity --- microbiota --- Hologenome --- diet --- aging

New treatment perspectives in autism spectrum disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195305 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-530-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Developing novel and more effective treatments that improve quality of life for individuals with autism spectrum disorders is urgently needed. To date a wide range of behavioral interventions have been shown to be safe and effective for improving language and cognition and adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with ASD. However many people with ASD can receive additional benefit from targeted pharmacological interventions. One of the major drawback in setting up therapeutics intervention is the remarkable individual differences found across individuals with ASD. As a matter of fact the medications that are currently available address only symptoms associated with ASD and not the core domains of social and communication dysfunction. The pathogenesis paradigm shift of ASD towards synaptic abnormalities moved the research to pathway to disease that involve multiple systems and that are becoming the forefront of ASD treatment and are pointing toward the development of new targeted treatments. Some new therapeutics have been tested and others are being studied. In this context single gene disorders frequently associated with ASD such as Rett Syndrome, Fragile X and Tuberous Sclerosis have been of significant aid as neurobiology of these disorders is more clear and has a potential to shed light on the altered signaling in ASD. However much research is needed to further understand the basic mechanisms of disease and the relationship to idiopathic ASD. Clinical trials in children are underway with agents directed to core symptoms and to the associated disorders in the search of new therapeutics and progress are expected with possible new option for therapeutics in ASD in the upcoming future. Children and Adolescents with ASD and their families can provide important information about their experience with new treatments and this should be a priority for future research. In addition, research performed on genetic mouse models of ASD will keep on providing useful information on the molecular pathways disrupted in the disease, thus contributing to identify novel drug targets.

Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195138 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-513-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Neuroanatomists increasingly rely on techniques enabling them to manipulate genes in defined brain cell populations. In particular, engineered transgenes, which encode a variety of fluorescent reporter proteins can be inserted into the genome or delivered into desired brain regions using viral vectors, thereby allowing the labeling of molecularly-defined populations of neurons and/or glial cells. Transgenic technology can also be used to selectively delete genes in targeted neuronal populations or bi-directionally modulate their electrical excitability using optogenetic or chemogenetic techniques. One of the primary advantages of using transgenic reagents is to simplify the identification and tracing of targeted population of brain cells, which can be laborious using traditional techniques in neuroanatomy. In this research topic, we assembled up-to-date reviews and original articles that demonstrate the versatility and power of transgenic tools in advancing our knowledge of the nervous system, with a special emphasis on the application of transgenic technology to neuroanatomical questions.

Human Tumor-Derived p53 Mutants: A Growing Family of Oncoproteins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199617 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-961-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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TP53 gene mutations are present in more than half of all human cancers. The resulting proteins are mostly full-length with a single amino acid change and are abundantly expressed in cancer cells. Some of the mutant p53 proteins gain oncogenic functions (GOF) through which it actively contribute to the aberrant cell proliferation, increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli and ability to metastasize. Gain of function mutant p53 proteins can transcriptionally regulate the expression of a large plethora of target genes. This mainly occurs through the formation of oncogenic transcriptional competent complexes that include mutant p53 protein, known transcription factors, posttranslational modifiers and scaffold proteins. Mutant p53 protein can also transcriptionally regulate the expression of microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Each microRNA can putatively target the expression of hundred mRNAs and consequently impact on many cellular functions. Thus, gain of function mutant p53 proteins can exert their oncogenic activities through the modulation of both non-coding and coding regions of human genome. Over the past 3 decades, the regulation of p53 has been extensively studied. However, the regulation of mutant p53 remained largely unexplored. This snapshot focuses on recent discovery of mutant p53 GOF and regulation.

Recent Advances in Doppler Signal Processing and Modelling Techniques for Fetal Monitoring

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455362 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-536-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The guest editors of this eBook have accepted 10 very high-quality submissions for inclusion in a special issue of Frontiers in Physiology. The key difference between this eBook and contemporary fetal physiology related literature is that this Research Topic summarizes additional insights into the physiological link between physiologically understandable mathematical indices of fetal signals and the developing cardiovascular functions in fetal health and compromises. This book should be of considerable help to researchers, professionals in fetal monitoring device industries, academics, and graduate students from a wide range of disciplines. The text provides a comprehensive account of recent research in this emerging field and we anticipate that the concepts presented here will generate further research in this field.

Distributed Networks: New Outlooks on Cerebellar Function

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196265 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-626-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Accumulating evidence suggests that the cerebellum subserves functions beyond the sensorimotor realm. This possibility has received considerable attention during the past quarter century, with recent findings revealing putative cerebellar roles in cognition, emotion and spatial navigation. These functions are potentially underpinned by the behaviour-dependent formation of functional networks in which the cerebellum forms one node of distributed circuits spanning thalamic, limbic and neocortical regions. However, these views are not universally accepted. Therefore, the over-arching aim of this Research Topic was to provide a forum through which the debate on the role of cerebellar interactions with motor and "non-motor" structures can be pursued in a rigorous manner. In particular, we aimed to bring together findings from the clinical, animal, theoretical and neuroimaging fields.

The Biology and Treatment of Myeloid Leukaemias

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ISBN: 9783038427957 9783038427964 Year: Pages: VI, 190 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 13:45:41
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There has been an observed decrease in the global mortality from cancer, mostly atributable to improved, particularly early, detection and prevention. For many carcinomas and leukaemias in adults, once the disease has reached a certain stage there are no therapies that are able to erradicate the cancer cells and cure patients. There has been progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and remissions are achievable; however, the presence of chemoresistent blast cells leads to most patients relapsing, and relapse is difficult to treat and thus patients die due to their disease. Targeting these resistent cells and the leukaemia stem cells, which sustain the leukaemia, is crucial for an effective therapy for AML. Moreover, an increasing number of diverse mutations have been described in AML cells that disrupt the ability of these cells to undergo differentiation. The use of pro-differentiating agents to drive the blast cells to mature, and subsequently undergo apoptosis, provides another approach to therapy. Differentiation therapy, using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an inducer of granulocyte differentiation, has been highly successful in the case of acute promyeloicytic leukaemia, a sub-type of AML, turning this disease into a curable malignancy.

Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197699 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-769-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This eBook provides a compendium of the current state-of-the-art in research tools for, and understanding of, the critical research areas in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with a strong emphasis on (HG-SOC). Research areas covered include therapy response and development, microenvironmental influences and the etiology and progression of EOC. Ten articles detail established and novel in vivo and in vitro model systems. These include primary and immortalized cell culture in 2D and 3D as well as genetically engineered, transgenic, spontaneous, syngeneic, classical xenograft and patient derived xenograft mouse models. The generation of genetically engineered mouse models of HG-SOC has been a major dilemma as models with the oncogenic aberrations common in the human malignancy do not accurately recapitulate HG-SOC. Conversely, commonly used HG-SOC cell lines have been found to not harbor the expected genetic changes. These issues as well as the rapid acceptance of patient derived xenograft models are reviewed. Five articles discuss different aspects of the tumor microenvironment including its role in therapy resistance, disease progression and metastasis. Mutation of BRCA1/2 continues to be the best defined risk factor for HG-SOC. Three articles discuss BRCA-loss in the context of disease development, targeted therapies and changes in preventative measures proposed for mutation carriers in light of the recent advances in knowledge regarding the origins of this malignancy. An image of HG-SOC with patchy BRCA1 expression is featured on the cover (image by VM Howell). A major clinical issue for patients with HG-SOC is the development of therapy resistance. Five articles focus on therapy resistance and different ways to overcome resistance. Overall, this eBook is an outstanding resource to aid researchers design their programs of research and determine the most appropriate and up-to-date EOC model systems to address their research questions.

Peroxiredoxin 6 as a Unique Member of the Peroxiredoxin Family

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ISBN: 9783038979340 / 9783038979357 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-935-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The peroxiredoxin family was discovered approximately 30 years ago and is now recognized as one of the most important families of enzymes related to antioxidant defense and cellular signaling. Peroxiredoxin 6 shares the basic enzymatic functions that characterize this family, but also exhibits several unique and crucial activities. These include the ability to reduce phospholipid hydroperoxides, phospholipase A2 activity, and an acyl transferase activity that is important in phospholipid remodeling. This book describes the available models for investigating the unique functions of PRDX6 and its role in normal physiological function, as well its roles in the pathophysiology of diseases including cancer, diseases of the eye, and male fertility.

Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210848 / 9783039210855 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-085-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The present Special Issue, “Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis”, aims to collect and to disseminate some of the most significant and recent contributions in the interdisciplinary area of innovative extraction procedures from complex matrices followed by validated analytical methods using hyphenated instrument configurations to support the optimization of the whole process and the scale-up possibility

Keywords

branched-chain keto acids --- serum --- muscle --- HPLC-Q-TOF/MS --- wood --- odor --- volatile organic compounds --- gas chromatography-olfactometry --- Wuyi Rock tea --- quality --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- UPLC-QqQ MS --- metabolite profiling --- metabolomics --- cluster analysis --- cultivars --- Lycium ruthenicun --- flavonoid --- ruthenicunoid A --- SIRT1 --- Asphodeline lutea --- HPLC-PDA --- heavy metals --- tyrosinase --- diabetes --- neurodegenerative disease --- color analysis --- pigments --- MAE --- HPLC-PDA --- SFE --- Thymus algeriensis --- rare earth elements --- flow injection --- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry --- seawater --- Hericium erinaceuns mycelium --- high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) --- genistein --- daidzein --- Fe3O4 --- modification --- alginate --- alkaloid --- ultrasound assisted extraction --- gelatin --- actinidin --- bovine hide --- physicochemical properties --- gel strength --- Semen Cuscutae --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry --- chlorogenic acids --- flavonoids --- steamed Panax notoginseng --- saponins --- extraction --- optimization --- antioxidant activity --- response surface methodology --- hematopoiesis --- microwave processing --- response surface methodology --- minor ginsenosides --- blood-enriching activity --- hemostatic activity --- ionic liquids --- sample preparation --- microextraction --- solid-phase microextraction --- dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- single-drop microextraction --- stir bar sorptive extraction --- stir cake sorptive extraction --- rosuvastatin --- metformin --- HILIC --- LC-MS --- therapeutic drug monitoring --- oolong tea --- Tieguanyin tea cultivar --- metabolite profiling --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- metabolomics --- Ajuga genevensis --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- dry extract --- fluid bed process --- microNIR --- in-line monitoring --- total polyphenolic content --- antioxidant --- flavonoids --- mouse melanoma B16 cells --- Panax notoginseng --- surfactant --- n/a --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry --- GHB --- GHB glucuronide --- nails --- endogenous values --- walnut septum --- polyphenols --- phytosterols --- HPLC-MS/MS --- Ultra-Turrax extraction --- biological activity --- antioxidant activity --- experimental design --- optimization --- phytochemicals

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