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Understanding Crohn's Disease: Immunity, Genes and Microbes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452149 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-214-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Abstract

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory bowel disease resulting in considerable morbidity and reduced quality of life. Although still under intense debate, CD seems to result from an enhanced and uncontrolled immune response to the gut microbiota. CD is thought to be multifactorial depending on genetic and environmental determinants. In recent years, nearly 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with increased risk of developing CD (some of the SNPs also associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis, another type of IBD). These SNPs are mostly located in genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, such as autophagy, expression of pattern-recognition receptors and citokine signaling. Epigenetics is also probably playing a role in CD susceptibility, as it is sensitive to environmental conditions and may mediate gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors possibly involved in CD development include diet, gut microbiota composition and infection with specific pathogens, of which the most consistently associated to CD are Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli. This Topic aimed at bringing together contributions covering different genetic, epigenetic, immunological and microbial processes involved in the development of CD, helping to drive forward the understanding of CD immunopahtology.

Immunobiotics: Interactions of Beneficial Microbes with the Immune System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453825 Year: Pages: 309 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-382-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The term “immunobiotics” has been proposed to define microbial strains able to beneficially regulate the mucosal immune system. Research in immunobiotics has significantly evolved as researchers employed cutting-edge technologies to investigate the complex interactions of these beneficial microorganisms with the immune system. During the last decade, our understanding of immunobiotics-host interaction was profoundly transformed by the discovery of microbial molecules and host receptors involved in the modulation of gut associated immune system, as well as the systemic and distant mucosal immune systems. In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of reports describing the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in diseases such as intestinal and respiratory infections, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, immunosuppression, and several other immune-mediated conditions. Evidence is also emerging of immunobiotics related molecules with immunomodulatory functions leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may positively influence human or animal health. Therefore, research in immunobiotics continue to contribute not only to food but also medical and pharmaceutical fields. The compilation of research articles included in this ebook should help reader to have an overview of the recent advances in immunobiotics.

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