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Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

Immune-Epithelial Crosstalk in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Mucosal Wound Healing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456185 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-618-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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80% of the bodies’ immune cells are harbored within the intestine. They are only separated from 1014 microorganisms by a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells and a secreted superficial mucus layer. Therefore, the intestinal epithelial surface represents a main frontier in host defense. Providing an intact mucosal barrier is vital for the host to limit bacterial entry and spread to the circulation. This specialized localization requires dynamic responses of intestinal epithelial cells to both pathogen- and immune-derived signals. Moreover, emergency barriers are needed in the setting of epithelial damage, which allow provisional microbial control and a timely restitution of mucosal integrity. Epithelial cells constantly interact with subjacent immune cells and fibroblasts, actively directing the immune response and also shaping the luminal microbiota. Epithelial dysfunction has been appreciated in recent years as a driving element in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Additionally, primary immune deficiencies may manifest in the form of chronic intestinal inflammation mimicking features of IBD. Recent advances in the techniques of epithelial cell culture and the discovery of new immune cell types and cellular properties have tremendously advanced the understanding in this interesting field of research. In this research topic, we want to focus on the complex interaction of intestinal epithelial cells, luminal flora and adjacent immune cells and invite manuscripts which highlight the dynamic responses of both epithelium and immune cells under steady-state or inflammatory conditions, and envision how this may be translated to the benefit of patient-care.

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