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Safety Pharmacology - Risk Assessment QT Interval Prolongation and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455393 Year: Pages: 385 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-539-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Current regulatory guidelines for cardiac safety utilize hERG block and QT interval prolongation as risk markers. This strategy has been successful at preventing harmful drugs from being marketed, but criticized for leading to early withdrawal of potentially safe drugs. Here we collected a series of articles presenting new technological and conceptual advances, including refinement of ex vivo and in vitro assays, screens and models, and in silico approaches reflecting the increasing effort that has been put forward by regulatory agencies, industry, and academia to try and address the need of a more accurate, mechanistically-based paradigm of proarrhythmic potential of drugs.This Research Topic is dedicated to the memory of Dr. J. Jeremy Rice, our wonderful friend and colleague.

Skalenübergreifende Modellierung und Optimierung vom atomistischen kristallinen Phasenfeldmodell bis zur mesoskopischen Phasenfeldmethode

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731504160 Year: Volume: 49 Pages: IX, 242 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000048186 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Expansion of the phase field crystal model for multi-component mixtures, as ternary dendritic and lamellar eutectic crystallization. Comparison of crystal growth with molecular dynamics and phase field simulations. Parameters and initial data structures are used to simulate, starting from a small atom cluster to a ternary dendrites with side arms. Optimization techniques to reduce the amount of computation are developed.

The Emerging Discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196425 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-642-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In 2011, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in collaboration with leaders from the pharmaceutical industry and the academic community, published a white paper describing the emerging discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), and recommended the establishment of NIH-supported interdisciplinary research and training programs for QSP. QSP is still in its infancy, but has tremendous potential to change the way we approach biomedical research. QSP is really the integration of two disciplines that have been increasingly useful in biomedical research; “Systems Biology” and “Quantitative Pharmacology”. Systems Biology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to understand the relationships between genes and biologically active molecules to develop qualitative models of these systems; and Quantitative Pharmacology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to use computer aided modeling and simulation to increase our understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, and to aid in the design of pre-clinical and clinical experiments. The purpose of QSP modeling is to develop quantitative computer models of biological systems and disease processes, and the effects of drug PK and PD on those systems. QSP models allow testing of numerous potential experiments “in-silico” to eliminate those associated with a low probability of success, avoiding the potential costs of evaluating all of those failed experiments in the real world. At the same time, QSP models allow us to develop our understanding of the interaction between drugs and biological systems in a more systematic and rigorous manner. As the need to be more cost-efficient in the use of research funding increases, biomedical researchers will be required to gain the maximum insight from each experiment that is conducted. This need is even more acute in the pharmaceutical industry, where there is tremendous competition to develop innovative therapies in a highly regulated environment, combined with very high research and development (R&D) costs for bringing new drugs to market (~$1.3 billion/drug). Analogous modeling & simulation approaches have been successfully integrated into other disciplines to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and to improve the efficiency of R&D (e.g., physics, engineering, economics, etc.). The biomedical research community has been slow to integrate computer aided modeling & simulation for many reasons: including the perception that biology and pharmacology are “too complex” and “too variable” to be modeled with mathematical equations; a lack of adequate graduate training programs; and the lack of support from government agencies that fund biomedical research. However, there is an active community of researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, the academic community, and government agencies that develop QSP and quantitative systems biology models and apply them both to better characterize and predict drug pharmacology and disease processes; as well as to improve efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical R&D.

ECO-COMPASS

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ISBN: 9783038976905 9783038976912 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-691-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Media and communication --- Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Today, mainly man-made materials, such as carbon and glass fibers, are used to produce composite parts in aviation. Renewable materials, such as natural fibers or bio-sourced resin systems, have not yet found their way into aviation. The project ECO-COMPASS aims to evaluate the potential applications of ecologically improved composite materials in the aviation sector in an international collaboration of Chinese and European partners. Natural fibers such as flax and ramie will be used for different types of reinforcements and sandwich cores. Furthermore, bio-based epoxy resins to substitute bisphenol-A based epoxy resins in secondary structures are under investigation. Adapted material protection technologies to reduce environmental influence and to improve fire resistance are needed to fulfil the demanding safety requirements in aviation. Modelling and simulation of chosen eco-composites aims for an optimized use of materials while a Life Cycle Assessment aims to prove the ecological advantages compared to synthetic state-of-the-art materials. This Special Issue provides selected papers from the project consortium partners.

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