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Urban Overheating - Progress on Mitigation Science and Engineering Applications

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ISBN: 9783038976363 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-637-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

The combination of global warming and urban sprawl is the origin of the most hazardous climate change effect detected at urban level: Urban Heat Island, representing the urban overheating respect to the countryside surrounding the city. This book includes 18 papers representing the state of the art of detection, assessment mitigation and adaption to urban overheating. Advanced methods, strategies and technologies are here analyzed including relevant issues as: the role of urban materials and fabrics on urban climate and their potential mitigation, the impact of greenery and vegetation to reduce urban temperatures and improve the thermal comfort, the role the urban geometry in the air temperature rise, the use of satellite and ground data to assess and quantify the urban overheating and develop mitigation solutions, calculation methods and application to predict and assess mitigation scenarios. The outcomes of the book are thus relevant for a wide multidisciplinary audience, including: environmental scientists and engineers, architect and urban planners, policy makers and students.

Keywords

heat health --- meteorological modeling --- urban climate --- urban-climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban heat island index --- Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) --- green area --- built-up area --- air temperature --- measurement --- calculation --- urbanization --- air and surface temperature measurements --- outdoor thermal comfort --- urban heat island --- surface cool island effect --- urban overheating --- urban microclimate --- mitigation strategies --- urban development --- park cool island --- urban cooling --- urban morphology --- micro-climate simulations --- ageing --- emissivity --- measurement --- solar reflectance --- solar reflectance index --- thermal emittance --- urban heat island --- land surface temperature --- “hot spots” --- “cold spots” --- MODIS downscaling --- overheating --- summer heat stress --- urban open space --- shading --- thermal comfort --- Physiologically Equivalent Temperature --- mitigation strategies --- cooling technologies --- cool materials --- WRF-Chem --- urban climate --- air quality --- urban heat island --- surface albedo --- climatic perception --- urban areas --- thermal comfort --- subtropical climate --- cool pavements --- road lighting --- urban heat island --- road surface --- material characterization --- luminance coefficient --- energy savings --- Euramet --- EMPIR 16NRM02 --- building energy performance --- energy simulation --- building retrofit --- multi-objective optimization --- genetic algorithm --- urban overheating --- cost-optimal analysis --- lifecycle analysis --- office buildings --- sustainability --- air temperature --- spectral analysis --- multifractal analysis --- structure functions analysis --- cool roofs --- fine-resolution meteorological modeling --- mobile temperature observations --- urban climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban vegetation --- urbanized WRF --- Weather Research and Forecasting model --- multiple linear regression --- urban heat island --- urban climatology --- urban energy balance --- air temperature --- land cover fraction --- urban morphology --- land surface temperature --- heat stress --- urban heat mitigation --- albedo --- cool facades --- spectral reflectance --- urban remote sensing --- empirical line method --- building scale --- local climate zone --- urban climate --- sky view factor --- morphological indicator --- open science --- GIS --- urban heat island --- urban overheating --- non-constructible parcels --- cool surfaces --- urban vegetation --- ENVI-met --- mitigation measures --- Beirut

Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978060 9783038978077 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-807-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book contains twenty-one original papers and one review paper published by internationally recognized experts in the Atmosphere Special Issue ""Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling"", years 2017–2019. The Special Issue includes contributions on recent experimental and modelling works, techniques, and developments mainly tailored to the assessment of urban ventilation on flow and pollutant dispersion in cities. The study of ventilation is of critical importance, as it addresses the capacity with which a built urban structure is capable of replacing the polluted air with ambient fresh air. Here, ventilation is recognized as a transport process that improves local microclimate and air quality and closely relates to the term “breathability”. The efficiency with which street canyon ventilation occurs depends on the complex interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer flow and the local urban morphology.The individual contributions to this Issue are summarized and categorized into four broad topics: (1) outdoor ventilation efficiency and application/development of ventilation indices, (2) relationship between indoor and outdoor ventilation, (3) effects of urban morphology and obstacles to ventilation, and (4) ventilation modelling in realistic urban districts. The results and approaches presented and proposed will be of great interest to experimentalists and modelers, and may constitute a starting point for the improvement of numerical simulations of flow and pollutant dispersion in the urban environment, for the development of simulation tools, and for the implementation of mitigation strategies.

Keywords

street canyon --- seasonal variation --- air flow --- pollutant dispersion --- pollutant removal --- natural ventilation --- residential wind environments --- building arrangements --- space pattern --- ventilation efficiency --- CFD simulation --- air change rate (ACH) --- flow and turbulence profiles --- hypothetical urban areas --- street-level ventilation --- ventilation assessment --- wind-tunnel dataset --- street vegetation --- CFD --- aerodynamic and deposition --- tree scenarios --- urban planning --- indoor-outdoor --- mass concentration --- nanoparticles --- particle number concentration (PNC) --- PM10 --- PM2.5 --- sampling --- Total Suspended Particles (TSP) --- ultrafine particles (UFP) --- urban street canyon --- wind enhancement --- architectural intervention --- water channel experiment --- CFD simulation --- passive ventilation --- street canyon --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- ventilation effectiveness --- the age of air --- convective boundary layer --- LES --- street-level ventilation --- small open space --- air change rate per hour (ACH) --- concentration decay method --- urban age of air --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation --- natural ventilation --- residential building --- climate zone --- thermal comfort --- natural ventilation hour --- Japan cities --- building energy use --- inter-building effect --- highly-reflective building envelope --- BEopt analysis --- source apportionment --- data assimilation --- urban air quality modelling --- wind environment --- Natural Ventilation Potential (NVP) --- PM2.5 --- building–tree grouping patterns --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- LES --- ventilation --- urban planning --- dispersion --- air quality --- street canyon --- traffic tidal flow --- numerical simulation --- vehicular pollution --- non-uniform distribution of the pollution source --- on-road air quality --- traffic composition --- high emitting vehicles --- street canyon --- mobile laboratory --- CFD model --- heat loss --- optimisation --- residential building --- air quality --- carbon dioxide concentration --- ventilation system --- wind pressure coefficient --- airflow network --- multiple linear regression --- natural ventilation --- urban layout --- surrogate model --- schematic urban environment --- wind tunnel --- LES --- validation --- street canyon --- coherent structures --- road tunnel --- natural ventilation --- wind catcher --- intake fraction --- street canyon --- CFD --- Large Eddy Simulation (LES) --- urban air quality --- pedestrian exposure --- concentration fluctuation --- outdoor ventilation --- urban morphology --- building site coverage --- ventilation efficiency --- n/a

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (2)


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CC by-nc-nd (2)


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eng (2)


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2019 (2)