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Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945, Kärnten

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ISBN: 9783205786535 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437201 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4266
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:37
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The book is the second volume of an encyclopedic reference work that, as the result of basic research in literary studies, represents the first systematic attempt to provide comprehensive documentation of the literary life of Austria during the Nazi era (1938-1945); the first volume (Styria) was published in 2008. From its methodological approach, it is intended to make the literary events that took place within the official system of the Third Reich as promoted, or at least tolerated, by the decision-makers in the cultural industry more accessible, without resorting to limiting, biased attempts to define a canon. Materials will be presented for the analysis and interpretation of the genesis and effects of these events and institutions. For this reason, the study is based on a functional understanding of literature and has taken key institutional elements of the literary communication system into consideration: authors and their works (including radio and film writers), scholars of German studies, the decision-makers of cultural policy (promotion/censure, literary awards), literary associations, publishing houses and theaters, anthologies and periodicals. The total control of all public creative and media activities in the year 1938 through the Third Reich dictatorship rarely provides good sources for the testing of this method. Our systematic research of the phase between 1938 and 1945 intends to create the most comprehensive description possible of the institutions within the literary system and the integration of authors. Apart from printed material in files pertaining to individuals, we primarily scrutinized the contents of the National Archive Berlin / Division on National Socialism (BDC) and what is known as the Gauakten or District Files for this purpose (the vast majority of personal information related to authors was provided by the authors themselves). The most important archival basis for the description of the institutions are files from the National Archive Koblenz (now in the National Archive Berlin) and the Municipal and Provincial Archives of Vienna.In the survey of material, some of the events that transpired before and after the critical Nazi years were systematically included in order to draw attention to continuities and breaks. Especially significant were literary awards and honors, which illustrate the integration of writers in the various governments from the monarchy up through the Second Republic. For this reason, we have included all such prizes that are known. The first attempt to list all literary organizations in Austria and all German-language anthologies, in which Austrian texts were included, covers the period between 1933 and 1945. The subsequent period has been documented not only through literary awards and honors, but also through the inclusion of the so-called Gauakten in the Austrian National Archive (Österreichisches Staatsarchiv / Archiv der Republik). In order to explore the institutional factors of the literary sub-system in German-speaking regions, a new kind of handbook was created in accordance with this methodological approach, a combination of encyclopedia of persons and specialized dictionary, which should be combined in a network to form a whole. Another factor that led to this format was the division of Austria by the Nazis into seven divisions subject directly to the German government. The handbooks have thus been structured as follows:Part I: Encyclopedia of Persons is divided into several volumes based on the administrative divisions (Gaue) at the time. The second volume will focus on Carinthia. The alphabetically-ordered author entries will be preceded by a literary and historical introduction and an organizational diagram of the literary-political associations of the individual divisions as well as an overview of institutions in the Gau. A list of abbreviations and a list of sources will be included at the end of each volume. The volumes devoted to individual authors wi

Homosexuelle im Nationalsozialismus. Neue Forschungsperspektiven zu Lebenssituationen von lesbischen, schwulen, bi-, trans- und intersexuellen Menschen 1933 bis 1945

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Book Series: Zeitgeschichte im Gespräch ISSN: 2190-2054 ISBN: 9783486857504 Year: Volume: 18 Pages: 146 DOI: 10.1524/9783486857504 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56

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How did homosexual, bisexual, transsexual, and intersexual persons live during the Nazi era? What persecutory measures did they face? This compendium addresses these and other questions. A focus is placed on the police and justice system as well as political, administrative, and social repression.

Alfred Flechtheim. Raubkunst und Restitution

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte ISSN: 05069408 ISBN: 9783110404975 Year: Volume: 110 Pages: 321,00 DOI: 10.1515/9783110404975 Language: German / English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-27 13:08:38

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The tragic story of Alfred Flechtheim, his ideological defamation, and the loss of his art collection

Sportdiktatur

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ISBN: 9783851325157 Year: Pages: 719 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574814 Language: German
Publisher: Turia und Kant Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3955
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:20
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The intention of the book is to reduce the enormous Austrian research deficiency concerning the reappraisal of the sporting life during the NS-era. Therefore it will depict all sportive areas on the "Austrian" territory between March 1938 and April 1945, including top sports and sports for all, mass and monority sports, sports in clubs, youth sports and also sports practices of the formations of the NSDAP. Due to the enormous quantity of material, this overview will be contrasted by a precise analysis of three specific periods: the months after the "Anschluss", the autumn 1939 and the period after Stalingrad.It can be shown, that and how the regime dictated the basic conditions of sports, but there can also be found some grey area, in which those who were involved found resp. created freedom by strategies of mutual adaption. This freedom was used by different groups in specific ways: by the regime to calm down the working class or to soothe anti-prussian resentments, by the athletes to get some privileges and by the spectators to keep a glimpse of good luck. Not instrumentalization defined sports, but a negotiation of interests.It is just gaze on the everyday life of sports and the inherent permanent negotioations between regime and the people, that refer to the book´s contribution to the long term discussion on national socialism, which exceeds the field of sports: The political and cultural system of the Nazi-era could not be understood by looking at power, competences or possibilities of the regime in comparison with the people´s experiences and feelings of subjection, from which historical sciences construct the image of an interlude, which cannot be included in the evolutionary development of modernity.Looking on sports not only claryfies, to which extent cultural traditions led on and how "normality" was kept alive, but shows, in which ways changes and new valuations were obviously shared and use by the people. This concerned changing definitions of the sense of community, of gender, youth, work and performance. The special importance of sports can be found in substantiating these articulations by giving them authenticity and tracing them back to the nature of men.The analysis of sporting life in the NS-era may serve as an cause for questioning the contemporarygaze on the Nazi state. For all people, who were allowed to be included, life in national socialism offered - in spite of holocaust and World War - supply of a pleasant, self-detemined and enjoyable livehood. Who leaves aside or overlooks this facet of the Nazi dictatorship, will not be able to understand the acceptance and fascination of the regime and evoke just this often senseless metaphors of refusal, which mostly shape actual discourses.

Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945. Band 4: Wien

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783205204923 Year: Pages: 968 Seiten Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - PUB 419
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:16

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The present book about Vienna is volume 4 of an encyclopedic reference work that, as the result of basic research in literary studies, represents the first systematic attempt towards a comprehensive documentation of the literary life of Austria during the Nazi era. From its methodological approach, it is intended to make the literary events that took place within the official system of the Third Reich as promoted, or at least tolerated, by the decision-makers in the cultural industry more accessible, without resorting to limiting, biased attempts to define a canon.

Zum Gedenken an Peter Borowsky

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Book Series: Hamburger Universitätsreden Neue Folge ISBN: 9783980822367 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.HURNF.3.50 Language: English|German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:20

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On October 13, 2000 the historian Peter Borowsky, a "pupil" of Fritz Fischer, died at the age of 62. He has worked at the University of Hamburg for almost four decades: as a student, research assistant, senior scientific officer and private lecturer for modern and contemporary history. In 1996, he was awarded the title of "Professor"; however, he was denied a professorship. As an author of high-circulation historical works, Peter Borowsky reached a large audience. Written jointly with Barbara Vogel and Heide Wunder, the introduction to history first published in 1975 is still a scientific "best-seller"to this day; Borowsky's Hitler biography for young people and his overview of German history after 1945 also experienced numerous editions. However, the focus of his work was on academic teaching, in which he achieved outstanding results. Generations of history students were taught, supervised and shaped by him - at the University of Hamburg as well as at Smith College, Northampton/Massachusetts, where the scholar has regularly held a visiting professorship since 1974. The partnership between these two universities was embodied by Peter Borowsky. The academic commemoration ceremonies in his honour - in February 2001 at the University of Hamburg and the following month at Smith College - conveyed a moving impression. A selection of the speeches given there and previously at the funeral service at the Nienstedten cemetery is summarized in this booklet. At the same time, an extensive commemorative volume was published on June 3, 2003, the 65th anniversary of Peter Borowsky's birth, the title "Lebendige Sozialgeschichte. Borowskys Forschungsfelder" (Living Social History. Borowskys Research Fields) is intended to emphasize the content and methodology of Borowsky's work and at the same time to accentuate his special way of conveying history.

Geraubte Identität

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ISBN: 9783205784623 Year: Pages: 304 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437141 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4088
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:40
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Stolen identity - the forced "Germanization" of "racially valuable" children during National Socialism, illustrated by the country of Poland. &#xD;&#xD;Heinrich Himmler, acting in his capacity as “Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of German Foldom”, ordered the selection of "racially valuable" polish children for "Germanization" – the Teutonic blood had to be collected even if it meant kidnapping children. &#xD;For this reason polish children from orphanages, schools, forster parents, parents who refused to sign the “Volksliste” and parents who had been murdered or sent to forced labor or concentration camps had to have a "racial" examination – children who possessed the Nordic features were regarded as suitable for the “Germanization” and were distributed in special children homes. At these special children homes the children were forced to give up their own identity step by step: the children got new German names and had to learn German, moreover contact with relatives at home was painfully forbidden. In Austria, known as "Ostmark" during National Socialism, two special places were found, where polish children were confronted with "Germanization practices": the children home "Alpenland" in Oberweis next to Gmunden and the resettlement camp "Parsch" in Salzburg.&#xD;After a "successful Germanization" the children were placed in German and Austrian forster families. There the children were treated in different ways: some children became a part of the family, they felt safety and comfortable and were treated like their own children. Other polish girls and boys were treated badly: the forster families took advantage of their defencelessness, they abused and beat the polish children, they reagard them just as cheap labourer.&#xD;After the war only a small number of such kidnapped children was tracked by the several tracking services like UNRRA, IRO or the Polish Red Cross. But further problems arose when German and Austrian forster families or the children themselves opposed the repatriation to Poland. Being back in Poland, the polish children were regarded as children of the enemy – regarded as “German” of the polish society.

"... allerlei für die Nationalbibliothek zu ergattern..."

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783205775041 Year: Pages: 617 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437148 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3835
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:46
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When Austria was annexed by Hitler Germany in March 1938, the National Library in Vienna was not only the biggest scientific library in the country, it was now the third largest in the German Reich. Its status among and influence on the scholarly libraries in the Reich was considerably enhanced by one person during the Nazi period, namely the newly-appointed director-general Dr. Paul Heigl, a fervent National socialist, Acquisitions by the Library during the years 1938 to 1945 are a key focal point of this history, and Heigl played both an active and significant role in the process of book looting in the interest of the National Library.&#xD;&#xD;The Library may well have regarded itself in the inter-war years as being „apolitical“ – and house historians have tended to reinforce this image – but this does not stand up to closer scrutiny even during the political period of the „Corporate State“ und Dollfuss and Schuschnigg, let alone during the time of national socialist rule in Austria. The study breaks with the previos taboos and presents the essentially political role of the Library both before and after March 1938 by investigating its involvement in the crimes of the Nazi regime. But the study does not only concentrate on acquisitions made through improper means, it also attempts to capture some of the atmosphere of a major library under the NS-regime and in war-time.&#xD;&#xD;The examination also sees itself as a contribution to the hitherto neglected history of libraries in Austria in the Nazi period in general and of church and official libraries in particular. It might be noted that Paul Heigl was not only in charge of scholary libraries in south-eastern Europe following the German invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, he was also a library consultant for local Nazi officials and had considerable sway in forging library policy. Our study discusses a number of chapters in the Library ´s history during the Nazi period which have so far been absent from official histories, primarily those which implicate the Library and point to the vast and varied acquisitions. The main chapter focusses on the development and acquisitions of the Library´s many collections from 1938 o 1945, chiefly on the basis of library records and files, and attempts to describe not only the looting, but also fate of stolen books, libraries and collections immediately after World War Two and on up to the present day. And, as the case may be, their subsequent restitution over the past few years as a consequence of the Art Restitution Law of 1998. Name and subject indices are intended to make the information in thistory more easily accessible.&#xD;

Zwischen Krieg und Euthanasie

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ISBN: 9783205783213 Year: Pages: 342 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437180 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4079
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:19
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This publication describes in detail the preparation and realization of the forcibly sterilization of numerous women and men Vienna from 1940 to 1945. These forced sterilizations of individuals, being categorized as 'hereditary ill', were based on the 'Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring' (GzVeN). In Nazi Germany it took effect in January 1934, and until the outbreak of the war, when most of the court-proceedings had already ended, 300.000 women and men, had been forcibly sterilized. In January 1940 the law was implemented in the 'Ostmark', and at least 6.000 women and men had been forcibly sterilized during the war. In Vienna, the then second-largest city of the 'German Reich' 1.203 court-decisions in favour of a forcibly sterilization could be traced-back. These court-files of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' (Erbgesundheitsgericht) became accessible for research only recently. The quantitative and qualitative analysis indicates three parameters for the implementation of the GzVeN in Vienna: First of all, the reduction of lawsuits to 'urgent' cases, i.e. persons of a 'particularly great danger of procreation'; secondly, the personal and structural restrictions resulting from war; and thirdly, the Nazi Euthanasia: Different from Nazi Germany the forced sterilizations had not been preceding the murder of disabled persons, but were rather implemented in the same period of time. Several doctors in Vienna were responsible for both, forced sterilizations and murder.Both judges and doctors of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' were keen to contribute to the radical efforts to create the visional 'healthy national body' by fulfilling the GzVeN independent of the above mentioned parameters: they implemented a National Socialist tort-law, which included a surgical intervention with severe and lifelong psychical and physical consequences - against the will of the people who were affected. After the end of the war, the judges and doctors did not have to take any kind of responsibility for their decisions to sterilize people forcibly. This was not surprising, taking into account that the categorization of persons due to their 'value of hereditage' ('Erbwert') continued: Firstly, the then-chancellor Renner announced to pass a similar law when the GzVeN was repealed in Mai 1945; secondly, the forcibly sterilized women and men were partly acknowledged only in 1995 as victims of Nazi-persecution and fully acknowledged only 2005; and thirdly, until to the present, women, being categorized as 'disabled', are still sterilized without their knowledge and therefore without their consent. However, this bodily injury does not carry a penalty, since there is no contradiction to the so called 'good manners' ('gute Sitten'), incorporated in the criminal law.

NS-Siedlungen in Wien

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ISBN: 9783643506276 Year: Pages: 477 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574656 Language: German
Publisher: LIT Verlag GmbH & Co. KG Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 114
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:02:04
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This study investigates the impact of National Socialist ideology and housing settlement projects in Greater Vienna following the Anschluss of Austria to the German Reich in 1938. In this regard, both planned and realized building projects are instructive. The research focused on archival documents of the city of Vienna and contemporaneous primary sources.

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