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Des catastrophes naturelles au désastre humain : Conséquences et enjeux de l’aide humanitaire après le tsunami et le cyclone Nargis en Thaïlande et Birmanie

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782956447092 DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.686 Language: French
Publisher: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:36
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Abstract

Le tsunami de 2004 et le cyclone Nargis de 2008 qui, à près de quatre ans d'intervalle, ont touché l'Asie du Sud-Est ont donné lieu à la mise en place de centaines de projets humanitaires et de développement. Ils ont apporté de profonds bouleversements dans la région en révélant une multitude d'enjeux, qu'ils soient politiques, économiques ou culturels. Néanmoins, sur le terrain et dans les rapports et propositions d'action ces projets visaient bien entendu à aider les victimes des catastrophes, rendues vulnérables par les éléments naturels. Là où tout était détruit, il fallait reconstruire mais, rapidement, nous nous sommes rendu compte qu'il ne s'agissait pas uniquement d'une reconstruction, mais plutôt d'une véritable construction : à l'urgence suit le développement, auquel des dizaines de milliers de personnes se sont retrouvées confrontées du jour au lendemain. La question se pose donc : un développement pour qui et pourquoi ? En observant la mise en place des actions dès le début, nous avons pu constater que les valeurs soutenues par les projets et la façon dont fonctionnait la réalité locale, complexe et efficace, n'étaient pas compatibles et que, dans certains cas, les conséquences de ces politiques de développement allaient devenir à leur tour catastrophiques, aboutissant à la création de citoyens de seconde zone n'ayant aucun autre choix que de se plier à la volonté de l'Etat et des ONG. Il s'agit ici d'observer les conséquences qu'a pu apporter une aide trop intéressée, mais aussi d'en comprendre les raisons. Pourquoi tant d'ONG ou d'organismes de développement, en voulant aider les victimes, les ont accolées à une précarité qui, si elle n'est pas toujours économique, touche néanmoins à la conscience et l'expression de leur identité ?

Keywords

Nature --- Climate --- Natural disaster --- Thailand --- development --- storm --- aid --- ngo

Approaches to Managing Disaster - Assessing Hazards, Emergencies and Disaster Impacts

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ISBN: 9789535102946 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.5772/1112 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Approaches to Managing Disaster - Assessing Hazards, Emergencies and Disaster Impacts demonstrates the array of information that is critical for improving disaster management. The book reflects major management components of the disaster continuum (the nature of risk, hazard, vulnerability, planning, response and adaptation) in the context of threats that derive from both nature and technology. The chapters include a selection of original research reports by an array of international scholars focused either on specific locations or on specific events. The chapters are ordered according to the phases of emergencies and disasters. The text reflects the disciplinary diversity found within disaster management and the challenges presented by the co-mingling of science and social science in their collective efforts to promote improvements in the techniques, approaches, and decision-making by emergency-response practitioners and the public. This text demonstrates the growing complexity of disasters and their management, as well as the tests societies face every day.

Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation

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ISBN: 9789535128854 9789535128861 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.5772/63173 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book is devoted to diverse aspects of earthquake researches, especially to new achievements in seismicity that involves geosciences, assessment, and mitigation. Chapters contain advanced materials of detailed engineering investigations, which can help more clearly appreciate, predict, and manage different earthquake processes. Different research themes for diverse areas in the world are developed here, highlighting new methods of studies that lead to new results and models, which could be helpful for the earthquake risk. The presented and developed themes mainly concern wave's characterization and decomposition, recent seismic activity, assessment-mitigation, and engineering techniques. The book provides the state of the art on recent progress in earthquake engineering and management. The obtained results show a scientific progress that has an international scope and, consequently, should open perspectives to other still unresolved interesting aspects.

Flood Risk Management

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535134657 9789535134664 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.5772/66850 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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In this book, contributions from several experts specializing in the area of flood risk management are assembled into a single volume. Application and testing of numerical and statistical models that can simulate the complex reality along with effective flood management strategies that are being implemented in various nations are presented. This collection of topics will provide an update to the reader as to the state of the art in this important technical field.

Natural Hazards - Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Reduction

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ISBN: 9781789848205 9781789848212 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73232 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book addresses different aspects of natural hazards and vulnerabilities, with a focus on prevention and protection. It consists of nine chapters, five on flood events addressing vulnerabilities, risk assessments, impacts, sensitivity analyses, and mitigation measures, two on climate change and reconstruction of natural hazard events such as avalanches and rockslides, and two on tsunamis and volcanoes. All chapters provide relevant information and useful elements for readers interested and concerned about the lack of action or its ineffectiveness in containing the vulnerabilities and risks of possible natural hazards worldwide.

Natural Hazards - Risk, Exposure, Response, and Resilience

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ISBN: 9781789840858 9781789840865 9781789854411 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77841 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Natural Hazards - Risk, Exposure, Response, and Resilience demonstrates advanced techniques to measure risks, exposures, responses, and solutions to hazards in an array of communities. Eleven original research reports by international scholars on hazard assessment and management are organized into four sections: studies assessing risk using in-depth modeling and technological detection to provide insight into problems associated with earthquakes, torrential rains, and nuclear power plant safety; studies revealing the spatial distributions of exposure and impacts from an assortment of hazards; studies examining human response to increased awareness of the patterns of hazard; and a study demonstrating assessment of resilience of sociotechnological systems to natural hazards. This volume contributes new conceptual and practical commentaries to assess, mitigate, and plan for disasters.

Dull Disasters? How planning ahead will make a difference

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780198785576 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785576.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: World Bank Group
Subject: Economics --- Social and Public Welfare --- Social Sciences --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-14 11:01:15
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Economic losses from disasters are now reaching an average of US$250–$300 billion a year. In the last 20 years, more than 530,000 people died as a direct result of extreme weather events; millions more were seriously injured. Most of the deaths and serious injuries were in developing countries. Meanwhile, highly infectious diseases will continue to emerge or re-emerge, and natural hazards will not disappear. But these extreme events do not need to turn into large-scale disasters. Better and faster responses are possible. The authors contend that even though there is much generosity in the world to support the responses to and recovery from natural disasters, the current funding model, based on mobilizing financial resources after disasters take place, is flawed and makes responses late, fragmented, unreliable, and poorly targeted, while providing poor incentives for preparedness or risk reduction. The way forward centres around reforming the funding model for disasters, moving towards plans with simple rules for early action and that are locked in before disasters through credible funding strategies—all while resisting the allure of post-disaster discretionary funding and the threat it poses for those seeking to ensure that disasters have a less severe impact.

Large-Scale and Full-Scale Methods for Examining Wind Effects on Buildings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455102 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-510-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Global economic losses due to severe weather events have grown dramatically over the past two decades. A large proportion of these losses are due to severe wind storms such as tropical cyclones and tornadoes, which can cause destruction to buildings, houses, and other infrastructure over large areas. To address the growing losses, many new large-scale and full-scale laboratories have been developed. These tools are used to examine the issues that could not be solved with the traditional tools of wind engineering including model-scale boundary layer wind tunnels, simplified standardized product tests, and other methods of analysis. This book presents state-of-the-art results from the development of the many novel approaches being used to mitigate natural disasters around the world.

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