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Pediatric and Neonatal Surgery

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ISBN: 9789535131359 9789535131366 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/63041 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Neonatal and Pediatric Surgery is a broad field with many challenges. The aim of this short book is to provide the reader with several informative chapters in the field of neonatal and pediatric surgery. Each chapter provides details on a specific area of this changing field. The scope of this book focuses on a few areas that are rare and challenging. For example, it covers preoperative and postoperative care of neonates. Important anesthesia considerations, including anesthesia for neonates and regional anesthesia, are discussed. A unique chapter on neonatal tumors is presented. The book provides an overview of the recent recommendations for care of infants and children that undergo cardiac surgery. The challenging aspects of caustic ingestion are explained. Each chapter stands alone as a detailed source of information for the reader. This book brings updated information with structured headings that will allow the reader to remain focused as the material is reviewed.

Selected Topics in Neonatal Care

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ISBN: 9781789233629 9781789233636 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.5772/65564 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Neonatology is one of the areas of greatest development and evolution within pediatrics. The technoscientific advances in this area have led to an increase in the survival of premature infants who sometimes require sophisticated care. However, there is essential care that must be included in all centers that care for high-risk babies. This book includes important topics related to neonatal care grouped into four sections. In 14 chapters that address relevant issues about neonatal care, the book seeks to contribute to the clinical work of the health teams of neonatal units. Specialists in the field of neonatology from different countries have developed these chapters and through them they hope to share part of their experience.

Neonatal Medicine

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ISBN: 9781839622748 9781839622755 9781839622762 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76552 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Neonatology is a new and quickly developing medical specialty. The rate of child and infant mortality and the incidence of adult diseases on life expectancy in any country are strongly dependent on the quality of medical aid to neonates. This is an area of medicine where a lot of new industrial innovations are used in combination with the humanizing of technologies. This book includes information on several aspects of neonatal care beginning with resuscitation in the delivery room and culminating with methods of constructing a parent-friendly atmosphere. It is addressed to neonatologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, and social workers.

Neonatal and Pediatric Cerebro-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456598 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-659-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Pediatric resuscitation medicine has witnessed significant advances with improved understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Multiple mechanisms of neurological injury have been identified, outlining potential avenues for neuroprotection following cardiac arrest. Resuscitation science exists at multiple levels of analysis, from biomechanics of chest compressions to implementation of best training procedures in real time, from epidemiology of cardiac arrest survival to molecular mechanisms of cellular injury due to ischemia and reperfusion. What next steps in research and in clinical practice will ensure the best possible neurologic outcome among children who survive cardiac arrest? How can we leverage novel technologies in neuroimaging, nanomaterials, drug delivery, biomarker-based risk stratification and next generation sequencing, among others, to resuscitate and to protect the Central Nervous System (CNS)? How can we improve clinical trial design and data analyses to maintain a robust clinical research infrastructure and to ensure validity and applicability? These are just some of the questions will addressed in this Research Topic. Using evidence-based algorithms and public health approaches to disseminate them, the last decade has seen a paradigm shift in pediatric resuscitation with significantly improved survival from pediatric cardiac arrests. However, neurologic outcome in survivors remains far from optimal. High quality CPR is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving neurologic outcomes. Advanced technologies allow monitoring the quality of CPR and just-in-time feedback to improve the quality of CPR. Further research is needed to evaluate impact of these technologies on neurologic outcome. The recent American Heart Association CPR guidelines emphasis on Circulation-Airway-Breathing (CAB) approach to CPR needs a careful evaluation in children, in whom timely airway and breathing support are as important as circulation. The growing controversy regarding use of epinephrine, and alternative routes of administration of epinephrine during CPR, warrants further evaluation in the setting of pediatric CPR. Improved outcome of hemodynamic goal-directed CPR over standard CPR in animal models of cardiac arrest has initiated interest in physiology-based CPR, especially in the in-hospital cardiac arrest. Basic and applied-science research have become relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (e.g., ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Just-in-time and just-in-place simulation training, which have evolved as training strategies to improve quality of CPR, are being evaluated for outcomes. The concept of just-in-time and just-in-place coaching of CPR providers on high quality CPR is a novel concept which has emerged recently and remains unstudied. Whilst there have been significant advances in newborn stabilization over the last decade many questions remain unanswered. These include the role of delayed cord clamping in preterm infants and term newborns requiring resuscitation, the role of sustained inflations as a method of respiratory support and the role of epinephrine and volume administration in neonatal resuscitation. Novel methods of assessment including the use of end tidal CO2 monitoring, respiratory function monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy warrant further evaluation. The use of transitioning animal models that accurately replicate the newborn circulation with patent fetal shunts are emerging but more assessments in these are required to better establish CPR strategies in newborn infants. Newborn resuscitation training programs have resulted in a reduction in neonatal mortality in the developing world, but key questions remain around the frequency of training, team training methods and the role of simulation training. Post resuscitation interventions, in particular therapeutic hypothermia, has resulted in significant improvements in long-term outcome and there is now a growing interest in adjunct therapies, such as use of melatonin, erythropoietin, or other neuroprotective molecules to improve therapeutic benefits of cooling. Therapeutic hypothermia did not provide any higher benefit than normothermia in children following out of hospital cardiac arrest, although three is considerable debate in the community whether 14% probability of observing a similar outcome if the study were repeated a 100 times applies to an individual child in the PICU. Exciting research is occurring in unraveling connection between inflammation, immune dysregulation and neuroinjury. This will further support research on the use of anti-inflammatory agents and immunomodulators for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest and birth asphyxia.

In Memory of Mary Ellen Avery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193639 Year: Pages: 24 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-363-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Mary Ellen Avery was the driving force behind the discipline of Neonatology. She fought against convention when she published her ground-breaking paper in 1959 showing that Hyaline Membrane Disease was caused by lung surfactant deficiency. Up until then it was thought to be an due to amniotic fluid aspiration, as suggested by Hoccheim in 1903. She encouraged her students to think out of the box, as long as we were studying ‘something that you couldn’t live without’. In addition to being a great clinician-researcher she was a mentor. The article is by her former students writing about their personal experiences under the tutelage of Mel Avery.

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