Search results: Found 3

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Criticality as a signature of healthy neural systems: multi-scale experimental and computational studies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195039 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-503-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Since 2003, when spontaneous activity in cortical slices was first found to follow scale-free statistical distributions in size and duration, increasing experimental evidences and theoretical models have been reported in the literature supporting the emergence of evidence of scale invariance in the cortex. Although strongly debated, such results refer to many different in vitro and in vivo preparations (awake monkeys, anesthetized rats and cats, in vitro slices and dissociated cultures), suggesting that power law distributions and scale free correlations are a very general and robust feature of cortical activity that has been conserved across species as specific substrate for information storage, transmission and processing. Equally important is that the features reminiscent of scale invariance and criticality are observed at scale spanning from the level of interacting arrays of neurons all the way up to correlations across the entire brain. Thus, if we accept that the brain operates near a critical point, little is known about the causes and/or consequences of a loss of criticality and its relation with brain diseases (e.g. epilepsy). The study of how pathogenetical mechanisms are related to the critical/non-critical behavior of neuronal networks would likely provide new insights into the cellular and synaptic determinants of the emergence of critical-like dynamics and structures in neural systems. At the same time, the relation between the impaired behavior and the disruption of criticality would help clarify its role in normal brain function. The main objective of this Research Topic is to investigate the emergence/disruption of the emergent critical-like states in healthy/impaired neural systems.

Social Interaction in Animals: Linking Experimental Approach and Social Network Analysis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451227 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-122-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Understanding the link between individual behaviour and population organization and functioning has long been central to ecology and evolutionary biology. Behaviour is a response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors including individual state, ecological factors or social interactions. Within a group, each individual can be seen as part of a network of social interactions varying in strength, type and dynamic. The structure of this network can deeply impact the ecology and evolution of individuals, populations and species. Within a group social interactions can take many forms and may significantly affect an individual’s fitness. These interactions may result in complex systems at the group-level, such as in the case of collective decisions (to migrate, to build nest or to forage). Among them, social transmission of information has been studied mostly in vertebrates: fish, birds and mammals including humans. In insects, social learning has been unambiguously demonstrated in social Hymenoptera but this probably reflects limited research effort and recent evidence show that even non-eusocial insects such as Drosophila, cockroaches and crickets can copy the behaviour of others. Compared to individual learning, which requires a trial and error period every generation, social learning can potentially result in the stable transmission of behaviours across generations, leading to cultural traditions in some species. The study of the processes which may facilitate or prevent this transmission and the analyses of the relationship between social network structure and efficiency of social transmission became these recent years an emerging and promising field of research. The goal of this research topic is to present the genetic and socio-environmental factors affecting social interaction and information or pathogen transmission with the integration of experimental approaches, social network analyses and modelling. Importantly, we aim to understand whether a relationship between social network structures and dynamics can reflect the efficiency of social transmission, i.e. can we use social network analysis to predict the social transmission of information or of pathogen, collective decision-making and ultimately the evolutionary trajectory of a group?

Neural information processing with dynamical synapses

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193837 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-383-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Experimental data have consistently revealed that the neuronal connection weight, which models the efficacy of the firing of a pre-synaptic neuron in modulating the state of a post-synaptic one, varies on short time scales, ranging from hundreds to thousands of milliseconds. This is called short-term plasticity (STP). Two types of STP, with opposite effects on the connection efficacy, have been observed in experiments. They are short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF). Computational studies have explored the impact of STP on network dynamics, and found that STP can generate very rich intrinsic dynamical behaviors, including damped oscillations, state hopping with transient population spikes, traveling fronts and pulses, spiral waves, rotating bump states, robust self-organized critical activities and so on. These studies also strongly suggest that STP can play many important roles in neural computation. For instances, STD may provide a dynamic control mechanism that allows equal fractional changes on rapidly and slowly firing afferents to produce post-synaptic responses, realizing Weber's law; STD may provide a mechanism to close down network activity naturally, achieving iconic sensory memory; and STF may provide a mechanism for implementing work-memory not relying on persistent neural firing. From the computational point of view, the time scale of STP resides between fast neural signaling (in the order of milliseconds) and rapid learning (in the order of minutes or above), which is the time scale of many important temporal processes occurring in our daily lives, such as motion control and working memory. Thus, STP may serve as a substrate for neural systems manipulating temporal information on the relevant time scales. This Research Topic aims to present the recent progress in understanding the roles of STP in neural information processing. It includes, but no exclusively, the studies on investigating various computational roles of STP, the modeling studies on exploring new dynamical behaviors generated by STP, and the experimental works which help us to understand the functional roles of STP.

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (3)


License

CC by (3)


Language

english (3)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)