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Synaptic Assembly and Neural Circuit Development

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456307 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-630-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Abstract

Synapses are fundamental signaling units of the central nervous system that mediate communication between individual neurons, participate in the computation of neuronal networks, and process information through long-term modification of their strength and structure. The normal function of the central nervous system critically depends on the establishment of ‘precise’ synaptic connections between neurons and specific target cells. During synaptogenesis, synapses form, mature, stabilize, and are eliminated through processes that require intimate communication between pre- and postsynaptic partners. The sequential and/or parallel processes dictate the wiring of neural circuits in a rapid and dynamic fashion. Accumulating evidence suggests that activity-dependent synaptic and circuit plasticity reflects the assembly and disassembly of diverse synapses that occur in a distinctive manner in specific neuron types.In this Research Topic, our purpose is to compile the latest developments in our understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying pre- and postsynaptic assembly, specification of synaptic adhesion pathways, presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic receptor trafficking. In addition, non-neuronal cell processes involved in dismantling and eliminating synapses and relevant neural circuits will be covered. Clinical implications of this research topic will be considered, emphasizing the importance of these basic neuroscience research activities for translational and therapeutic applications. This includes literature describing recent methodologies for probing key issues regarding assembly/disassembly of synapses and circuits as well as primary research articles that provide critical insights into these fundamental questions in various model systems and experimental preparations.

Mechanisms of Neural Circuit Formation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194032 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-403-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The formation of the proper pattern of neuronal circuits during development is critical for the normal function of the vertebrate brain and for the survival of the organism. Circuit tracing studies spanning the past 100 years have revealed the beauty and exquisite intricacy of this pattern, which represents the most complex biological system known. In humans, aberrant circuit formation is a likely underlying cause of a wide variety of birth defects and neurological disorders, including autism, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, future therapeutic approaches to restoring the function of damaged neural circuits will require a better understanding of the developmental constraints under which those circuits were originally assembled. For these reasons, elucidating the molecular mechanisms of neural circuit formation is a major goal of neurobiology today.

Neurobiological circuit function and computation of the serotonergic and related systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193844 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-384-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Serotonin is one of the oldest neurotransmitters in evolutionary terms, and the serotonergic system is complex and multifaceted. Serotonin-producing neurons in the raphe nuclei provide serotonin innervations throughout various parts of the brain, modulating cellular excitability and network properties of targeted brain areas, and regulating mood, cognition and behavior. Dysfunctions of the serotonergic system are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. Although the system has been studied for many years, an integrative account of its functions and computational principles remains elusive. This is partly attributed to the high variability and heterogeneity in terms of neuronal properties and receptor types, and its extensive connections with other brain regions. This Frontiers Research Topic e-book is a collection of recent experimental and computational work and approaches at multiple scales that provide the latest information regarding the integrated functions of the serotonergic system. The contributed papers include a variety of experimental and computational work, and human clinical studies.

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