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Traumatic Brain Injury as a Systems Neuroscience Problem

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450985 Year: Pages: 167 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-098-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is traditionally viewed as an anatomic and neuropathological condition. Caring for TBI patients is a matter of defining the extent of an anatomical lesion, managing this lesion, and minimizing secondary brain injury. On the research side, the effects of TBI often are studied in the context of neuronal and axonal degeneration and the subsequent deposition of abnormal proteins such as tau. These approaches form the basis of our current understanding of TBI, but they pay less attention to the function of the affected organ, the brain. Much can be learned about TBI by studying this disorder on a systems neuroscience level and correlating changes in neural circuitry with neurological and cognitive function. There are several aspects of TBI that are a natural fit for this perspective, including post-traumatic epilepsy, consciousness, and cognitive sequelae. How individual neurons contribute to network activity and how network function responds to injury are key concepts in examining these areas. In recent years, the available tools for studying the role of neuronal assemblies in TBI have become increasingly sophisticated, ranging from optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to advanced imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography. Further progress in understanding the disruption and subsequent reshaping of networks is likely to have substantial benefits in the treatment of patients with TBI-associated deficits. In this Frontiers Topic, we intend to highlight the systems neuroscience approach to studying TBI. In addition to analyzing the clinical sequelae of TBI in this context, this series of articles explores the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying network dysfunction, including alterations in synaptic activity, changes in neural oscillation patterns, and disruptions in functional connectivity. We also include articles on treatment options for TBI patients that modulate network function. It is our hope that this Frontiers Topic will increase the clinical and scientific communities’ awareness of this viable framework for deepening our knowledge of TBI and improving patient outcomes.

Neural and Computational Modeling of Movement Control

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451302 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-130-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In the study of sensorimotor systems, an important research goal has been to understand the way neural networks in the spinal cord and brain interact to control voluntary movement. Computational modeling has provided insight into the interaction between centrally generated commands, proprioceptive feedback signals and the biomechanical responses of the moving body. Research in this field is also driven by the need to improve and optimize rehabilitation after nervous system injury and to devise biomimetic methods of control in robotic devices. This research topic is focused on efforts dedicated to identify and model the neuromechanical control of movement. Neural networks in the brain and spinal cord are known to generate patterned activity that mediates coordinated activation of multiple muscles in both rhythmic and discrete movements, e.g. locomotion and reaching. Commands descending from the higher centres in the CNS modulate the activity of spinal networks, which control movement on the basis of sensory feedback of various types, including that from proprioceptive afferents. The computational models will continue to shed light on the central strategies and mechanisms of sensorimotor control and learning. This research topic demonstrated that computational modeling is playing a more and more prominent role in the studies of postural and movement control. With increasing ability to gather data from all levels of the neuromechanical sensorimotor systems, there is a compelling need for novel, creative modeling of new and existing data sets, because the more systematic means to extract knowledge and insights about neural computations of sensorimotor systems from these data is through computational modeling. While models should be based on experimental data and validated with experimental evidence, they should also be flexible to provide a conceptual framework for unifying diverse data sets, to generate new insights of neural mechanisms, to integrate new data sets into the general framework, to validate or refute hypotheses and to suggest new testable hypotheses for future experimental investigation. It is thus expected that neural and computational modeling of the sensorimotor system should create new opportunities for experimentalists and modelers to collaborate in a joint endeavor to advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms for postural and movement control. The editors would like to thank Professor Arthur Prochazka, who helped initially to set up this research topic, and all authors who contributed their articles to this research topic. Our appreciation also goes to the reviewers, who volunteered their time and effort to help achieve the goal of this research topic. We would also like to thank the staff members of editorial office of Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience for their expertise in the process of manuscript handling, publishing, and in bringing this ebook to the readers. The support from the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Misha Tsodyks and Dr. Si Wu is crucial for this research topic to come to a successful conclusion. We are indebted to Dr. Si Li and Ms. Ting Xu, whose assistant is important for this ebook to become a reality. Finally, this work is supported in part by grants to Dr. Ning Lan from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011CB013304), the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81271684, No. 61361160415, No. 81630050), and the Interdisciplinary Research Grant cross Engineering and Medicine by Shanghai Jiao Tong University (YG20148D09). Dr. Vincent Cheung is supported by startup funds from the Faculty of Medicine of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Guest Associate EditorsNing Lan, Vincent Cheung, and Simon Gandevia

The Insect Central Complex - From Sensory Coding to Directing Movement

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455782 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-578-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The most fundamental function of the brain is the analysis and integration of sensory information in order to generate motor commands that result in directed, meaningful interactions with the environment. This process can be viewed as an internal comparison between the current state of the world and a desired state of the world, with any mismatch leading to compensatory action. For an animal to respond to external stimuli in a directed way in any given sensory situation, it first has to assess the orientation of its body with reference to the environment. The current body position computed in this way then has to be matched against the desired position, and any resulting discrepancy has to be compensated for by a change in limb position, movement direction, or a transition to a new movement mode. The desired body orientation depends on many different parameters, such as the animal’s nutritional state, its reproductive status, the time of day, the current behavioral state, or previous experience. Vertebrate brains process these parameters across diverse brain regions, involving millions of neurons, a fact that makes pinpointing the underlying circuitry a daunting endeavor.Across insects, a single brain area, the central complex, is involved in many of the mentioned fundamental processes: It contains an ordered array of head direction cells, its neurons are targeted by multisensory input pathways, visual and spatial memories reside in this region, and certain central-complex neurons are active just before movements of the animal, predicting its future turning direction. Additionally, state-dependent changes of neural response characteristics and a vast supply of neuromodulators suggests a highly dynamic, context-dependent remodeling of local circuitry. All of this places the central complex at the interface of sensory processing and motor planning, providing a location at which current and desired heading could be compared and adequate action can be selected in response. The highly regular, almost crystalline neuroarchitecture of this region has the advantage of enabling us to immediately connect structure with function - at the level of identified, individual neurons. The neural algorithms implemented in the circuitry that mediate action selection are thus uniquely accessible in this brain region. This research topic therefore aims at connecting the diverse aspects of central-complex function and develop an open-source framework in which to embed current knowledge (reviews) and novel findings from biological, theoretical, and engineering perspectives (original research articles, short communications). Four complementary sub-topics provide the main focus: 1) The current state of the world - Encoding and integration of sensory information; 2) Generating behavior - Motor planning and neural correlates of behavior; 3) Computing the desired state of the world - Integration of internal state, memory, and behavioral state; 4) Neural hardware and algorithms - The underlying circuits and computations of the central complex. By illuminating structure-function relations on multiple levels in diverse species, within a brain region that is omnipresent across insects, we aim at exposing fundamental principles that enable animals to generate adaptive behavior despite inhabiting a world of an infinite number of possible sensory scenarios.

Frontiers in Synaptic Plasticity: Dendritic Spines, Circuitries and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199471 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-947-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The term “synaptic plasticity” is a broad concept, which is studied with a variety of experimental approaches. One focus is the impact of changes in synaptic, neuronal and glial morphology on brain circuitry and behavior. In this regard, unique animal models have been key to the study of affective and social behaviors and neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, there is a paucity of compilations directed toward the correlation of alterations in synaptic structure with various physiological and behavioral paradigms. This Frontiers Research Topic will, therefore, serve as an exciting forum for the exchange of novel hypotheses and data and an important resource and reference for investigators studying synaptic and brain plasticity, as well as those in related fields.

Biogenic Amines and Neuromodulation of Animal Behavior, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455645 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-564-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Since Erspamer and Boretti, 1951 first described the biogenic amine octopamine in the octopus salivary gland as a molecule with “adrenaline-like” action, decades of extensive studies demonstrated the important role octopamine and its precursor tyramine play in invertebrate physiology and behavior. This book contains the latest original research papers on tyramine/octopamine and their receptors in different neuronal and non-neuronal circuits of insects.

Additonally, this book elucidates in detail the latest research on the function of other biogenic amines and their receptors, such as dopamine and serotonin in insects and mice. The reviews in this book summarize the most recent research on the role of biogenic amines in insect antennae, synaptic development, and behavioral modulation by spontaneous dopamine release in Drosophila. Finally, one perspective paper discusses the evolution of social behavior and biogenic amines.

We recommend this book for all scholars interested in the latest advanced research on the role of biogenic amines in animal behavior.

ITS dedicates the topic to her teacher, Plotnikova Svetlana Ivanovna (1922-2013).
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