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Enabling Technologies for Very Large-Scale Synaptic Electronics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455089 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-508-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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An important part of the colossal effort associated with the understanding of the brain involves using electronics hardware technology in order to reproduce biological behavior in ‘silico’. The idea revolves around leveraging decades of experience in the electronics industry as well as new biological findings that are employed towards reproducing key behaviors of fundamental elements of the brain (notably neurons and synapses) at far greater speed-scale products than any software-only implementation can achieve for the given level of modelling detail. So far, the field of neuromorphic engineering has proven itself as a major source of innovation towards the ‘silicon brain’ goal, with the methods employed by its community largely focused on circuit design (analogue, digital and mixed signal) and standard, commercial, Complementary Metal-Oxide Silicon (CMOS) technology as the preferred `tools of choice’ when trying to simulate or emulate biological behavior. However, alongside the circuit-oriented sector of the community there exists another community developing new electronic technologies with the express aim of creating advanced devices, beyond the capabilities of CMOS, that can intrinsically simulate neuron- or synapse-like behavior. A notable example concerns nanoelectronic devices responding to well-defined input signals by suitably changing their internal state (‘weight’), thereby exhibiting `synapse-like’ plasticity. This is in stark contrast to circuit-oriented approaches where the `synaptic weight’ variable has to be first stored, typically as charge on a capacitor or digitally, and then appropriately changed via complicated circuitry. The shift of very much complexity from circuitry to devices could potentially be a major enabling factor for very-large scale `synaptic electronics’, particularly if the new devices can be operated at much lower power budgets than their corresponding 'traditional' circuit replacements. To bring this promise to fruition, synergy between the well-established practices of the circuit-oriented approach and the vastness of possibilities opened by the advent of novel nanoelectronic devices with rich internal dynamics is absolutely essential and will create the opportunity for radical innovation in both fields. The result of such synergy can be of potentially staggering impact to the progress of our efforts to both simulate the brain and ultimately understand it. In this Research Topic, we wish to provide an overview of what constitutes state-of-the-art in terms of enabling technologies for very large scale synaptic electronics, with particular stress on innovative nanoelectronic devices and circuit/system design techniques that can facilitate the development of very large scale brain-inspired electronic systems

Spiking Neural Network Connectivity and its Potential for Temporal Sensory Processing and Variable Binding

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192397 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-239-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The most biologically-inspired artificial neurons are those of the third generation, and are termed spiking neurons, as individual pulses or spikes are the means by which stimuli are communicated. In essence, a spike is a short-term change in electrical potential and is the basis of communication between biological neurons. Unlike previous generations of artificial neurons, spiking neurons operate in the temporal domain, and exploit time as a resource in their computation. In 1952, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley produced the first model of a spiking neuron; their model describes the complex electro-chemical process that enables spikes to propagate through, and hence be communicated by, spiking neurons. Since this time, improvements in experimental procedures in neurobiology, particularly with in vivo experiments, have provided an increasingly more complex understanding of biological neurons. For example, it is now well understood that the propagation of spikes between neurons requires neurotransmitter, which is typically of limited supply. When the supply is exhausted neurons become unresponsive. The morphology of neurons, number of receptor sites, amongst many other factors, means that neurons consume the supply of neurotransmitter at different rates. This in turn produces variations over time in the responsiveness of neurons, yielding various computational capabilities. Such improvements in the understanding of the biological neuron have culminated in a wide range of different neuron models, ranging from the computationally efficient to the biologically realistic. These models enable the modelling of neural circuits found in the brain. In recent years, much of the focus in neuron modelling has moved to the study of the connectivity of spiking neural networks. Spiking neural networks provide a vehicle to understand from a computational perspective, aspects of the brain's neural circuitry. This understanding can then be used to tackle some of the historically intractable issues with artificial neurons, such as scalability and lack of variable binding. Current knowledge of feed-forward, lateral, and recurrent connectivity of spiking neurons, and the interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons is beginning to shed light on these issues, by improved understanding of the temporal processing capabilities and synchronous behaviour of biological neurons. This research topic aims to amalgamate current research aimed at tackling these phenomena.

Neuromorphic Engineering Systems and Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194544 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-454-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Neuromorphic engineering has just reached its 25th year as a discipline. In the first two decades neuromorphic engineers focused on building models of sensors, such as silicon cochleas and retinas, and building blocks such as silicon neurons and synapses. These designs have honed our skills in implementing sensors and neural networks in VLSI using analog and mixed mode circuits. Over the last decade the address event representation has been used to interface devices and computers from different designers and even different groups. This facility has been essential for our ability to combine sensors, neural networks, and actuators into neuromorphic systems. More recently, several big projects have emerged to build very large scale neuromorphic systems. The Telluride Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop (since 1994) and the CapoCaccia Cognitive Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop (since 2009) have been instrumental not only in creating a strongly connected research community, but also in introducing different groups to each other’s hardware. Many neuromorphic systems are first created at one of these workshops. With this special research topic, we showcase the state-of-the-art in neuromorphic systems.

Closed-Loop Systems for Next-Generation Neuroprostheses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454662 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-466-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Millions of people worldwide are affected by neurological disorders which disrupt the connections within the brain and between brain and body causing impairments of primary functions and paralysis. Such a number is likely to increase in the next years and current assistive technology is yet limited. A possible response to such disabilities, offered by the neuroscience community, is given by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) and neuroprostheses. The latter field of research is highly multidisciplinary, since it involves very different and disperse scientific communities, making it fundamental to create connections and to join research efforts. Indeed, the design and development of neuroprosthetic devices span/involve different research topics such as: interfacing of neural systems at different levels of architectural complexity (from in vitro neuronal ensembles to human brain), bio-artificial interfaces for stimulation (e.g. micro-stimulation, DBS: Deep Brain Stimulation) and recording (e.g. EMG: Electromyography, EEG: Electroencephalography, LFP: Local Field Potential), innovative signal processing tools for coding and decoding of neural activity, biomimetic artificial Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) and neural network modeling. In order to develop functional communication with the nervous system and to create a new generation of neuroprostheses, the study of closed-loop systems is mandatory. It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improvements in task performance, usability, and embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. The bi-directional communication between living neurons and artificial devices is the main final goal of those studies. However, closed-loop systems are still uncommon in the literature, mostly due to requirement of multidisciplinary effort. Therefore, through eBook on closed-loop systems for next-generation neuroprostheses, we encourage an active discussion among neurobiologists, electrophysiologists, bioengineers, computational neuroscientists and neuromorphic engineers. This eBook aims to facilitate this process by ordering the 25 contributions of this research in which we highlighted in three different parts: (A) Optimization of different blocks composing the closed-loop system, (B) Systems for neuromodulation based on DBS, EMG and SNN and (C) Closed-loop BMIs for rehabilitation.

Self Organizing Maps - Applications and Novel Algorithm Design

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ISBN: 9789533075464 Year: Pages: 716 DOI: 10.5772/566 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Kohonen Self Organizing Maps (SOM) has found application in practical all fields, especially those which tend to handle high dimensional data. SOM can be used for the clustering of genes in the medical field, the study of multi-media and web based contents and in the transportation industry, just to name a few. Apart from the aforementioned areas this book also covers the study of complex data found in meteorological and remotely sensed images acquired using satellite sensing. Data management and envelopment analysis has also been covered. The application of SOM in mechanical and manufacturing engineering forms another important area of this book. The final section of this book, addresses the design and application of novel variants of SOM algorithms.

Artificial Neural Networks - Industrial and Control Engineering Applications

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ISBN: 9789533072203 Year: Pages: 492 DOI: 10.5772/2041 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Artificial neural networks may probably be the single most successful technology in the last two decades which has been widely used in a large variety of applications. The purpose of this book is to provide recent advances of artificial neural networks in industrial and control engineering applications. The book begins with a review of applications of artificial neural networks in textile industries. Particular applications in textile industries follow. Parts continue with applications in materials science and industry such as material identification, and estimation of material property and state, food industry such as meat, electric and power industry such as batteries and power systems, mechanical engineering such as engines and machines, and control and robotic engineering such as system control and identification, fault diagnosis systems, and robot manipulation. Thus, this book will be a fundamental source of recent advances and applications of artificial neural networks in industrial and control engineering areas. The target audience includes professors and students in engineering schools, and researchers and engineers in industries.

Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Advances and Biomedical Applications

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ISBN: 9789533072432 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.5772/644 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Artificial neural networks may probably be the single most successful technology in the last two decades which has been widely used in a large variety of applications in various areas. The purpose of this book is to provide recent advances of artificial neural networks in biomedical applications. The book begins with fundamentals of artificial neural networks, which cover an introduction, design, and optimization. Advanced architectures for biomedical applications, which offer improved performance and desirable properties, follow. Parts continue with biological applications such as gene, plant biology, and stem cell, medical applications such as skin diseases, sclerosis, anesthesia, and physiotherapy, and clinical and other applications such as clinical outcome, telecare, and pre-med student failure prediction. Thus, this book will be a fundamental source of recent advances and applications of artificial neural networks in biomedical areas. The target audience includes professors and students in engineering and medical schools, researchers and engineers in biomedical industries, medical doctors, and healthcare professionals.

Artificial Neural Networks - Application

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ISBN: 9789533071886 Year: Pages: 600 DOI: 10.5772/2052 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book covers 27 articles in the applications of artificial neural networks (ANN) in various disciplines which includes business, chemical technology, computing, engineering, environmental science, science and nanotechnology. They modeled the ANN with verification in different areas. They demonstrated that the ANN is very useful model and the ANN could be applied in problem solving and machine learning. This book is suitable for all professionals and scientists in understanding how ANN is applied in various areas.

Advanced Applications for Artificial Neural Networks

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ISBN: 9789535137801 9789535137818 9789535140573 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68505 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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In this book, highly qualified multidisciplinary scientists grasp their recent researches motivated by the importance of artificial neural networks. It addresses advanced applications and innovative case studies for the next-generation optical networks based on modulation recognition using artificial neural networks, hardware ANN for gait generation of multi-legged robots, production of high-resolution soil property ANN maps, ANN and dynamic factor models to combine forecasts, ANN parameter recognition of engineering constants in Civil Engineering, ANN electricity consumption and generation forecasting, ANN for advanced process control, ANN breast cancer detection, ANN applications in biofuels, ANN modeling for manufacturing process optimization, spectral interference correction using a large-size spectrometer and ANN-based deep learning, solar radiation ANN prediction using NARX model, and ANN data assimilation for an atmospheric general circulation model.

Memristor and Memristive Neural Networks

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ISBN: 9789535139478 9789535139485 9789535140092 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.5772/66539 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book covers a range of models, circuits and systems built with memristor devices and networks in applications to neural networks. It is divided into three parts: (1) Devices, (2) Models and (3) Applications. The resistive switching property is an important aspect of the memristors, and there are several designs of this discussed in this book, such as in metal oxide/organic semiconductor nonvolatile memories, nanoscale switching and degradation of resistive random access memory and graphene oxide-based memristor. The modelling of the memristors is required to ensure that the devices can be put to use and improve emerging application. In this book, various memristor models are discussed, from a mathematical framework to implementations in SPICE and verilog, that will be useful for the practitioners and researchers to get a grounding on the topic. The applications of the memristor models in various neuromorphic networks are discussed covering various neural network models, implementations in A/D converter and hierarchical temporal memories.

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