Search results: Found 21

Listing 1 - 10 of 21 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Biology of Brain Disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453801 Year: Pages: 586 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-380-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Physiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Brain disorders, including neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, represent a challenge for public health systems and society at large. The limited knowledge of their biology hampers the development of diagnostic tools and effective therapeutics. A clear understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the onset and progression of brain disorders is required in order to identify new avenues for therapeutic intervention.Overlapping genetic risk factors across different brain disorders suggest common linkages and pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie brain disorders. Methodological and technological advances are leading to new insights that go beyond traditional hypotheses. Taking account of underlying molecular, cellular and systems biology underlying brain function will play an important role in the classification of brain disorders in future.In this Research Topic, the latest advances in our understanding of biological mechanisms across different brain disorders are presented. The areas covered include developments in neurogenetics, epigenetics, plasticity, glial cell biology, neuroimmune interactions and new technologies associated with the study of brain function. Examples of how understanding of biological mechanisms are translating into research strategies that aim to advance diagnoses and treatment of brain disorders are discussed.

Potential Neuromodulatory Profile of Phytocompounds in Brain Disorders

Author:
ISBN: 9783038423171 9783038423164 Year: Pages: VIII, 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-317-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:45:35
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Natural and chemical compounds, often used as both dietary supplements and alternative medicines, are characterized by specific chemical properties, allowing their passage across the blood brain barrier with consequent specific effects on neurotransmission. In particular, several natural compounds have shown beneficial properties in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially cognitive impairment and mood disorders, contributing to the maintenance of the physiological brain functioning by interacting with different receptors, transcription factors and signal transduction pathways. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have also been proposed as crucial contributors to brain dysfunction development, thus recent investigations have focused on novel therapeutic approaches based on the use of phytoderivates with neuroprotective properties. Thus, this Special Issue includes a collection of 11 papers, describing key findings for the identification of molecular mechanisms required for the development of potential and promising natural therapeutics for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

Microglia in Health and Disease: A Unique Immune Cell Population

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456017 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system (CNS), make microglia a unique cell population compared to other tissue-macrophages. The unique properties and functions of microglial cells, such as their role in synaptic pruning or the exceptional capacity to scan the brain parenchyma and rapidly react to its perturbations, have emerged in recent years. In the coming years, understanding how microglia acquire and maintain their unique profiles in order to fulfil distinct tasks in the healthy CNS and how these are altered in disease, will be essential to develop strategies to diagnose or treat CNS disorders with an immunological component.This Research Topic covers several aspects of microglial biology, ranging from their origin and the functional role of microglia during development and lifespan, their molecular properties compared with other brain and peripheral immune cells to microglial phenotypes and functional states in neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumours. In conclusion, the present Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of several cellular and molecular mechanisms that make microglia a unique immune cell population within the healthy CNS as well as under inflammatory, neurodegenerative and tumorigenic processes.

Regulatory RNAs in the Nervous System

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194834 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-483-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Until about a decade ago, the non-coding part of the genome was considered without function. RNA sequencing studies have shown, however, that a considerable part of the non-coding genome is transcribed and that these non-coding RNAs (nc-RNAs) can regulate gene expression. Almost on weekly basis, new findings reveal the regulatory role of nc-RNAs exert in many biological processes. Overall, these studies are making increasingly clear that, both in model organisms and in humans, complexity is not a function of the number of protein-coding genes, but results from the possibility of using combinations of genetic programs and controlling their spatial and temporal regulation during development, senescence and in disease by regulatory RNAs. This has generated a novel picture of gene regulatory networks where regulatory nc-RNAs represent novel layers of regulation. Particularly well-characterized is the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), small nc-RNAs, that bind to mRNAs and regulate gene expression after transcritpion. This message is particularly clear in the nervous system, where miRNAs have been involved in regulating cellular pathways controlling fundamental functions during development, synaptic plasticity and in neurodegenerative disease. It has also been shown that neuronal miRNAs are tightly regulated by electrical activity at the level of transcription, biogenesis, stability and specifically targeted to dendrites and synapsis. Deregulation of expression of miRNAs is proposed not only as potential disease biomarker, but it has been implicated directly in the pathogenesis of complex neurodegenerative disease. This so-called RNA revolution also lead to the exploitation of RNA interference and the development of related tools as potential treatment of a vast array of CNS disease that could benefit from regulation of disease-associated genes. In spite of these advancements, the relatively young age of this field together with the inherent high molecular complexity of RNA regulation of biological processes have somewhat hindered its communication to the whole of the neuroscience community. This Research Topic aims at improving this aspect by putting around the same virtual table scientists covering aspects ranging from basic molecular mechanisms of regulatory RNAs in the nervous system to the analysis of the role of specific regulatory RNAs in neurobiological processes of development, plasticity and aging. Furthermore, we will welcome papers analyzing the role of regulatory RNAs in disease models from neuromuscular to higher cognitive functions, and we will also encourage submission of more technically oriented papers dealing with new methodologies to study regulatory RNA biology and its translational potential.

Brain Injury as a Neurodegenerative Disorder

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199013 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-901-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

It has been long assumed that following the resolution of acute injuries, traumatic brain injury represents a stable neural entity. However, there is growing evidence that a single moderate-severe brain injury may instead trigger an ongoing deteriorative process that commences sub-acutely, and occurs regardless of age. For scientists and clinicians, it is critical to examine this body of evidence and to explore its implications. Do the findings represent a neurodegenerative process or can they be alternatively explained? What are the neural, behavioural and functional characteristics of this progressive deterioration? Such information is needed to develop treatments to prevent or mitigate decline, and to inform the clinical care of brain injured patients. Research and clinical practice are influenced by the assumption that moderate-severe TBI is non-progressive, with few studies exploring treatments to prevent progression, and rehabilitation typically concentrated in the early stages of injury. Brain injuries can never be fully prevented. However, understanding that such progressive deterioration occurs opens a novel area of research - prevention of secondary decline - offering new possibilities for the improvement of long-term outcomes in people with traumatic brain injury.

Unraveling Neuroprotective and Neurodegenerative Signals in Neurodegeneration

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199563 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-956-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Proteinopathy is a collective term used to classified neurodegenerative diseases associated with the progressive accumulation of toxic protein molecules in specific brain regions. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a well-known proteinopathy characterize by the accumulation of A peptides and tau proteins. The accumulation of these toxic molecules in the brain starts many years before any clinical presentation, being the onset in the range of 65 to 72 years of age. Therefore, age is considered a risk factor due, in part, to the loss of molecular competence to clear the brain from these toxic protein molecules. This fact, supported by years of research, demonstrates that brain cells activate a neuroprotective mechanism upon detection of a pathobiological signal that (if the detrimental conditions persist) precedes the activation of the neurodegeneration pathway. The progressive brain region specific neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases also indicates that the transition from neuroprotection to neurodegeneration is individually triggered in cells of the affected brain region. Thus, molecular understanding of the pathophysiology associated with proteinopathies needs to take in consideration this intricate transition process, especially when genomics and proteomics approaches are used. Research directed to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases uncovered the putative role of different molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration. Among the molecular mechanisms identified are proteolysis, epigenetics, microRNA, transcriptional regulation, innate and adaptive immune system, phagocytosis and autophagocytosis, exo/endocytosis, unfolded protein response, cytoskeleton defects, unregulated signaling molecules (i.e. kinases and phosphatases), trafficking molecules, cell cycle, neurogenesis/neurodevelopment, among others. Interestingly, all these molecular mechanisms have been identified through the analysis of tissue from animal models or human post-mortem pathologically confirmed cases, but their specific role in neurodegeneration is still unclear. Thus, it is plausible to consider that all these pathways play a role at a particular phase of the neurodegeneration process or, simply, are drive by the agonal state of the tissue examined. Hence, an important conundrum that researchers face today is the use of heterogeneous brain tissue samples in the quest to identify biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. At this junction of the neurodegeneration field, this research topic aim to critically assess the current literature on molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration and the approaches used to dissect their putative pathophysiological role. The studies could include the interplay between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative signals in neurodegeneration, dissecting the molecular role of identified biomarkers, bioinformatics tools that facilitate data mining, dissecting pathways or molecular mechanisms, stages of protein aggregation (oligomers vs tangles; who did it?), aging brain and brain fitness (A natural selection process), adaptive protein response to environmental insults and cellular signals, expression profile associated with neurological disorders and health. Therefore, this Research Topic is expected to cover a wide range of subjects related to unravel the interplay between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative signals in neurodegeneration.

Morphogens in the wiring of the nervous system

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197811 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-781-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neuronal function relies on the establishment of proper connections between neurons and their target cells during development. This basic statement involves several cellular processes, such as neuronal differentiation, the polarized outgrowth of axons and dendrites from differentiated neurons, and the pathfinding of axons towards target cells. The subsequent recognition of complementary synaptic partners finally triggers the formation, maturation, and maintenance of functional synapses. Morphogens are secreted signaling molecules commanding tissue patterning and cell identity during early embryonic development. Remarkably, growing evidence over the last years arising from different invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms has shown that, after cell fate has been established, morphogens also control the precise wiring and function in the developing and mature nervous system. Accordingly, dysfunctions of the signaling pathways activated by these molecules contribute to synaptic disassembly and altered function in diseases affecting the nervous system. We consider it timely to bring together cumulative evidence pointing to crucial roles for signaling activated by different morphogens in the establishment of precise contacts between neurons and their synaptic partners. Therefore, this research topic issue combines review and research articles aimed to cover the functional relevance of such morphogens on the different steps involved in synaptic assembly and function. Diverse model systems of physiological or pathological conditions have been included, as well as different cellular, biochemical and molecular approaches. Altogether, they contribute in different and complementary ways to build a holistic view of the roles that early development morphogens play during the assembly, maintenance and/or regeneration of functional synapses.

Keywords

Morphogens --- Nervous System --- synapse --- Neurogenesis --- neurodegeneration --- Wnt --- BMP --- Shh

Regulatory RNAs in the Nervous System, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456574 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-657-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Until about a decade ago, the non-coding part of the genome was considered without function. RNA sequencing studies have shown, however, that a considerable part of the non-coding genome is transcribed and that these non-coding RNAs (nc-RNAs) can regulate gene expression. Almost on weekly basis, new findings reveal the regulatory role of nc-RNAs exert in many biological processes. Overall, these studies are making increasingly clear that, both in model organisms and in humans, complexity is not a function of the number of protein-coding genes, but results from the possibility of using combinations of genetic programs and controlling their spatial and temporal regulation during development, senescence and in disease by regulatory RNAs. This has generated a novel picture of gene regulatory networks where regulatory nc-RNAs represent novel layers of regulation. Particularly well-characterized is the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), small nc-RNAs, that bind to mRNAs and regulate gene expression after transcritpion. This message is particularly clear in the nervous system, where miRNAs have been involved in regulating cellular pathways controlling fundamental functions during development, synaptic plasticity and in neurodegenerative disease. It has also been shown that neuronal miRNAs are tightly regulated by electrical activity at the level of transcription, biogenesis, stability and specifically targeted to dendrites and synapses. Deregulation of expression of miRNAs is proposed not only as potential disease biomarker, but it has been implicated directly in the pathogenesis of complex neurodegenerative disease. This so-called RNA revolution also lead to the exploitation of RNA interference and the development of related tools as potential treatment of a vast array of CNS disease that could benefit from regulation of disease-associated genes. In spite of these advancements, the relatively young age of this field together with the inherent high molecular complexity of RNA regulation of biological processes have somewhat hindered its communication to the whole of the neuroscience community. This Research Topic aims at improving this aspect by putting around the same virtual table scientists covering aspects ranging from basic molecular mechanisms of regulatory RNAs in the nervous system to the analysis of the role of specific regulatory RNAs in neurobiological processes of development, plasticity and aging. Furthermore, we included papers analyzing the role of regulatory RNAs in disease models from neuromuscular to higher cognitive functions, and more technically oriented papers dealing with new methodologies to study regulatory RNA biology and its translational potential.

Preclinical and clinical issues in Alzheimer's disease drug research and development

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194339 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-433-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction and memory loss, inability to perform the activities of daily living and mood disorders. According to the so-called “amyloid cascade hypothesis”, amyloid-ß- peptide (Aß), produced by beta- and gamma- secretase-mediated cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aß was also shown to contribute to AD pathology by stimulating the hyperphosphorylation of tau which is responsible for the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the “amyloid cascade hypothesis” was challenged by other theories which lend support to the idea that Aß is not causative but can be considered as an “innocent bystander” in AD. Although preclinical research generated impressive lines of evidence about the several intracellular mechanism(s) whose impairment leads to the onset and progression of AD, clinical research aimed at the development of new drugs capable of preventing or delaying the onset of neuronal damage in AD patients has produced limited results. The drugs currently available for the treatment of AD are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) and the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. The AChEI increase acetylcholine levels in the synaptic cleft, which are reduced because of the progressive damage of cholinergic neurons in cognitive brain areas (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus, and frontal cortex), whereas memantine is used to prevent/reduce calcium-dependent excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Both classes of drugs have been shown to improve symptoms related to cognitive decline, but their effects are confined largely to patients with mild to moderate AD, in particular during the first year or so of treatment. An alternative to this symptomatic treatments involves the use of drugs that intervene in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against Aß were proposed as novel agents capable to remove Aß from the brain thus preventing neuronal damage. The research topic focuses on the preclinical and clinical evidence about the several factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of AD as well as the potential therapeutic role of new classes of drugs still under preclinical or clinical development.

Mechanisms of neuroinflammation and inflammatory neurodegeneration in acute brain injury

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196913 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-691-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Mechanisms of brain-immune interactions became a cutting-edge topic in systemic neurosciences over the past years. Acute lesions of the brain parenchyma, particularly, induce a profound and highly complex neuroinflammatory reaction with similar mechanistic properties between differing disease paradigms like ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Resident microglial cells sense tissue damage and initiate inflammation, activation of the endothelial brain-immune interface promotes recruitment of systemic immune cells to the brain and systemic humoral immune mediators (e.g. complements and cytokines) enter the brain through the damaged blood-brain barrier. These cellular and humoral constituents of the neuroinflammatory reaction to brain injury contribute substantially to secondary brain damage and neurodegeneration. Diverse inflammatory cascades such as pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of invading leukocytes and direct cell-cell-contact cytotoxicity between lymphocytes and neurons have been demonstrated to mediate the inflammatory ‘collateral damage’ in models of acute brain injury. Besides mediating neuronal cell loss and degeneration, secondary inflammatory mechanisms also contribute to functional modulation of neurons and the impact of post-lesional neuroinflammation can even be detected on the behavioral level. The contribution of several specific immune cell subpopulations to the complex orchestration of secondary neuroinflammation has been revealed just recently. However, the differential vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types and the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration are still elusive. Furthermore, we are only on the verge of characterizing the control of long-term recovery and neuronal plasticity after brain damage by inflammatory pathways. Yet, a more detailed but also comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted interaction of these two supersystems is of direct translational relevance. Immunotherapeutic strategies currently shift to the center of translational research in acute CNS lesion since all clinical trials investigating direct neuroprotective therapies failed. To advance our knowledge on brain-immune communications after brain damage an interdisciplinary approach covered by cellular neuroscience as well as neuroimmunology, brain imaging and behavioral sciences is crucial to thoroughly depict the intricate mechanisms.

Listing 1 - 10 of 21 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (18)

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (3)


License

CC by (18)

CC by-nc-nd (3)


Language

english (20)

eng (1)


Year
From To Submit

2019 (1)

2018 (7)

2017 (6)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)