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Using Substances to Enhance Performance: A Psychology of Neuroenhancement

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450756 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-075-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Neuroenhancement (NE) is a behavior conceptualized as the use of a potentially psychoactive substance to enhance ones’ already proficient cognitive capacities. Depending on the specific definitions used, prevalence estimates vary greatly between very low 0.3% (for illicit substances) to astonishingly high 89% (for freely available lifestyle substances). These variations indicate that further research and more conceptual and theoretical clarification of the NE construct is dearly needed. The contributions of this research topic aim to do just that. Specific questions addressed are: How prevalent is NE behavior? How can NE research profit from the already more evolved field of social science research on doping in sports? How is NE perceived by the public? What psychological processes and variables play a role in the decision to neuroenhance? A wide array of methodological approaches is used to investigate these questions. The topics contributions range from theoretical to experimental accounts on NE, and they utilize a diverse set of methods ranging from qualitative to neuroscientific approaches. The research presented here represents a first step towards what we have labeled a psychological approach to NE. By addressing the questions above this research topic hopefully advances our understanding of NE behavior. As with every new field of research, new answers always prompt new questions. In light of what we know now about NE, we hope that the findings presented here will be pursued by other researchers in the future. Clearly, the endeavor to understand NE behavior has only just begun.

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453252 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-325-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non-invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.

Neuroscience perspectives on Security: Technology, Detection, and Decision Making

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196005 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-600-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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In security science, efficient operation depends typically on the interaction between technology, human and machine detection and human and machine decision making. A perfect example of this interplay is ‘gatekeeping’, which is aimed to prevent the passage of people and objects that represent known threats from one end to the other end of an access point. Gatekeeping is most often achieved via visual inspections, mass screening, random sample probing and/or more targeted controls on attempted passages at points of entry. Points of entry may be physical (e.g. national borders) or virtual (e.g. connection log-ons). Who and what are defined as security threats and the resources available to gatekeepers determine the type of checks and technologies that are put in place to ensure appropriate access control. More often than not, the net performance of technology-aided screening and authentication systems ultimately depends on the characteristics of human operators. Assessing cognitive, affective, behavioural, perceptual and brain processes that may affect gatekeepers while undertaking this task is fundamental. On the other hand, assessing the same processes in those individuals who try to breach access to secure systems (e.g. hackers), and try to cheat controls (e.g. smugglers) is equally fundamental and challenging. From a security standpoint it is vital to be able to anticipate, focus on and correctly interpret the signals connected with such attempts to breach access and/or elude controls, in order to be proactive and to enact appropriate responses. Knowing cognitive, behavioral, social and neural constraints that may affect the security enterprise will undoubtedly result in a more effective deployment of existing human and technological resources. Studying how inter-observer variability, human factors and biology may affect the security agenda, and the usability of existing security technologies, is of great economic and policy interest. In addition, brain sciences may suggest the possibility of novel methods of surveillance and intelligence gathering. This is just one example of a typical security issue that may be fruitfully tackled from a neuroscientific and interdisciplinary perspective. The objective of our Research Topic was to document across relevant disciplines some of the most recent developments, ideas, methods and empirical findings that have the potential to expand our knowledge of the human factors involved in the security process. To this end we welcomed empirical contributions using different methodologies such as those applied in human cognitive neuroscience, biometrics and ethology. We also accepted original theoretical contributions, in the form of review articles, perspectives or opinion papers on this topic. The submissions brought together researchers from different backgrounds to discuss topics which have scientific, applicative and social relevance.

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